greek Lesson 22

John 2:7

λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· γεμίσατε τὰς ὑδρίας ὕδατος. καὶ ἐγέμισαν αὐτὰς ἕως ἄνω.

  • Is ὕδατος a genitive of content or a genitive of material (see the illustration in GGBB p. 90)?
  • εως is here used as a preposition with ανω as its OP. cf. Matt 27:51 for the opposite expression ἕως κάτω “to the bottom”.
  • The tense formative in γεμισατε is clear. Where is the augment?


John 2:8

καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· ἀντλήσατε νῦν καὶ φέρετε τῷ ἀρχιτρικλίνῳ· οἱ δὲ ἤνεγκαν.


John 2:9

ὡς δὲ ἐγεύσατο ὁ ἀρχιτρίκλινος τὸ ὕδωρ οἶνον γεγενημένον καὶ οὐκ ᾔδει πόθεν ἐστίν, οἱ δὲ διάκονοι ᾔδεισαν οἱ ἠντληκότες τὸ ὕδωρ, φωνεῖ τὸν νυμφίον ὁ ἀρχιτρίκλινος

  • Why is a present tense verb (εστιν) used with ηδει which is past tense?

This participle is attributive and modifies διάκονοι.

αντλε-            stem
ηντλε                reduplication (note the vocalic redup.)
ηντλεκ               tense formative (see #9 in the list)
ηντληκ               principle 12
ηντληκοτ           participle morpheme
ηντληκοτες        case ending


John 2:10

καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ· πᾶς ἄνθρωπος πρῶτον τὸν καλὸν οἶνον τίθησιν καὶ ὅταν μεθυσθῶσιν τὸν ἐλάσσω· σὺ τετήρηκας τὸν καλὸν οἶνον ἕως ἄρτι.


John 2:11

Ταύτην ἐποίησεν ἀρχὴν τῶν σημείων ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐν Κανὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ ἐφανέρωσεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ.

  • Ιησους is nominative and hence the subject. ταυτην is accusative case, but αρχην is also accusative. Which is the object of εποιησεν? Here we have a case of an object complement. Notice the questions GGBB gives on p. 184.
  • If one of the two accusatives is a pronoun, it will be the DO. In this verse, ταυτην is a pronoun so it will be the DO of εποιησεν. αρχην is the object complement.

Hence, our translation will be, “Jesus did this as the first (or beginning) of His signs.”