Romans 5

Rom 5:1

Δικαιωθέντες οὖν ἐκ πίστεως εἰρήνην ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν θεὸν διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,

Rom 5:2

δι’ οὗ καὶ τὴν προσαγωγὴν ἐσχήκαμεν τῇ πίστει εἰς τὴν χάριν ταύτην ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκαμεν, καὶ καυχώμεθα ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ·

Rom 5:3

οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμεθα ἐν ταῖς θλίψεσιν, εἰδότες ὅτι ἡ θλῖψις ὑπομονὴν κατεργάζεται,

Rom 5:4

ἡ δὲ ὑπομονὴ δοκιμήν, ἡ δὲ δοκιμὴ ἐλπίδα.

Rom 5:5

ἡ δὲ ἐλπὶς οὐ καταισχύνει· ὅτι ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ ἐκκέχυται ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου τοῦ δοθέντος ἡμῖν.

Rom 5:6

Ἔτι γὰρ Χριστὸς ὄντων ἡμῶν ἀσθενῶν ἔτι κατὰ καιρὸν ὑπὲρ ἀσεβῶν ἀπέθανεν.

Rom 5:7

μόλις γὰρ ὑπὲρ δικαίου τις ἀποθανεῖται· ὑπὲρ γὰρ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ τάχα τις καὶ τολμᾷ ἀποθανεῖν·

Rom 5:8

συνίστησιν δὲ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀγάπην εἰς ἡμᾶς ὁ θεὸς ὅτι ἔτι ἁμαρτωλῶν ὄντων ἡμῶν Χριστὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἀπέθανεν.

Rom 5:9

πολλῷ οὖν μᾶλλον δικαιωθέντες νῦν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ σωθησόμεθα δι’ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀργῆς.

Rom 5:10

εἰ γὰρ ἐχθροὶ ὄντες κατηλλάγημεν τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ θανάτου τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, πολλῷ μᾶλλον καταλλαγέντες σωθησόμεθα ἐν τῇ ζωῇ αὐτοῦ·

Rom 5:11

οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμενοι ἐν τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, δι’ οὗ νῦν τὴν καταλλαγὴν ἐλάβομεν.


Rom 5:12

Διὰ τοῦτο ὥσπερ δι’ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἡ ἁμαρτία εἰς τὸν κόσμον εἰσῆλθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ θάνατος, καὶ οὕτως εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὁ θάνατος διῆλθεν ἐφ’ ᾧ πάντες ἥμαρτον—

 


Rom 5:13

ἄχρι γὰρ νόμου ἁμαρτία ἦν ἐν κόσμῳ, ἁμαρτία δὲ οὐκ ἐλλογεῖται μὴ ὄντος νόμου,

 


Rom 5:14

ἀλλὰ ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι Μωϋσέως καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μὴ ἁμαρτήσαντας ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδάμ, ὅς ἐστιν τύπος τοῦ μέλλοντος.

 


Rom 5:15

Ἀλλ’ οὐχ ὡς τὸ παράπτωμα, οὕτως καὶ τὸ χάρισμα· εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι οἱ πολλοὶ ἀπέθανον, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι τῇ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐπερίσσευσεν.

But not as the trespass, in this manner even the gift. For if by the trespass of the one man, the many died, much more the grace of God and the gift by grace abounded to many by [the act] of the one Man, Jesus Christ.

Paraphrase: Now let’s return to where I was before. I had mentioned before that Adam’s sin brought death and misery upon every person.  Now one way to better understand the beauty and glory of God’s salvation, is to compare it with what Adam did.  My first comparison is going to note the effects of what Adam did and what God does to us through Christ.  Adam sinned by eating the forbidden fruit; and thus, violated the terms of the covenant which God had made with him.  By this one act, Adam gave the entire human race over to death.  This is certainly a terrible result of what Adam did.  But now, let’s put the results of Adam’s sin next to the results of what God did when, in His grace and mercy, He sent Jesus to this earth.  By God’s grace, we are raised far higher than we ever fell in Adam.  In the hands of Jesus, we receive a gift which consists in being set free from death’s tyranny and being brought into the glorious liberty of the children of God. (Rom 8:21; Gal 5:1; 2Cor 3:17) 

Comments:

“οἱ πολλοί is always used inclusively.” TDNT 540. In other words, it is synonymous with πάντας ἀνθρώπους in v18.

τῇ here is an orphan article and is parallel to the τῷ … παραπτώματι before. τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι is Adam’s act; the τῇ is Jesus act. The two are clearly in parallel here.

 


Rom 5:16

καὶ οὐχ ὡς δι’ ἑνὸς ἁμαρτήσαντος τὸ δώρημα· τὸ μὲν γὰρ κρίμα ἐξ ἑνὸς εἰς κατάκριμα, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα ἐκ πολλῶν παραπτωμάτων εἰς δικαίωμα.

and not as through one man sinning [was] the gift. For on the one hand, judgment from one man to condemnation, but the gift from many trespasses into a justification.

Paraphrase:  Now for my second comparison. Again, let’s focus on the differing results of the first Adam’s failure and the second Adam’s success!  Adam sinned in the garden of Eden and as a result, he is summoned into God’s court.  The terms of the covenant are read, and the Judge announces the verdict, Guilty!  Now consider Jesus.  He also came to this earth and was born subjet to the same covenant stipulations. (Gal 4:4)  When He, however, is summoned into God’s courtroom, the result is completely different.  His record is perfect without the slightest flaw.  Now the verdict is a clear Not Guilty!  Doesn’t this comparison show us the super-abounding grace of God?!  Everyone of us must also see the guilt of our many sins and be led to cry out, “Depart from me; Oh Lord, for I am a sinful man.” (Luke 5:8) or with the Psalmist, “Cast me not away from Your presence.” (Psalm 51:11) We fully expect to be cast into eternal condemnation as our sin deserves.  Instead, God’s verdict is “Not Guilty!“.  How is it possible?

Comments:

 


Rom 5:17

εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι ὁ θάνατος ἐβασίλευσεν διὰ τοῦ ἑνός, πολλῷ μᾶλλον οἱ τὴν περισσείαν τῆς χάριτος καὶ τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς δικαιοσύνης λαμβάνοντες ἐν ζωῇ βασιλεύσουσιν διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

For if by the trespass of the one man, death reigned thru the one, much more those who are receiving the abundance of the grace and of the gift of righteousness in life shall reign through the one Man, Jesus Christ.

Paraphrase:  Now for my third comparison.  This time I want you to focus on who is king.  I said before that by Adam’s covenant breaking, we were given over to death.  This means that Adam’s sin made death to be our king.  He is a cruel tyrant who now oppresses and enslaves all human persons under his terrible bondage.  Into Death’s dominions, however, Jesus has made a triumphal entry.  By His choice to execute on His Father’s plan (Luke 22:29) and His willingness to take His people’s curse (Gal 3:13), He brought the gift of a new life to those under Death’s tyranny.  Now this oppressed people can see just how powerful God’s grace is. Because of what Jesus did, God now has a gift of righteousness for those who were anything but righteous and deserved something quite different.  Those who were under God’s curse and thus ruled by Death, now receive the Gift (and it really is a gift, not to be earned!) and are set free from Death’s tyranny.  They are ushered into eternal life. (John 5:24) Furthermore, they are not just made alive but are made kings and priests in God’s kingdom. (Rev 5:10)

Comments:

οἱ is the article of λαμβάνοντες.

 


Rom 5:18

Ἄρα οὖν ὡς δι’ ἑνὸς παραπτώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς κατάκριμα, οὕτως καὶ δι’ ἑνὸς δικαιώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς δικαίωσιν ζωῆς·

Consequently, as through one trespass to all men unto condemnation, in this manner even through one righteous act to all men unto justification of life.

Paraphrase: Now for my fourth comparison.  This time, I will show you how Adam and Jesus fare in God’s courtroom.  We see the first Adam enter and with him is his entire family. The terms of the covenant are read.  The terms are perfect, personal, and perpetual obedience to every command of God.  The Judge enters and takes his seat.  The verdict is announced, Guilty!  The Judge nods to the jailer, and the entire family is taken out and locked up on death row.  They are all guilty because of their father’s trespass.  Then, the Second Adam enters the court with His family.  The terms of the same covenant are read again, and the verdict is announced, Not Guilty!  The entire family shouts for joy as they are led to the door of the courthouse and sent on their way.

Comments:

Blass says that Ἄρα οὖν is a strengthened form of just αρα. source

δικαιώματος is a noun and means a righteous act; δικαίωσιν is a verb and represents the action of the judge when he announces his verdict of not guilty. In the next verse, we have δίκαιος which is an adjective meaning righteous or just.

 


Rom 5:19

ὥσπερ γὰρ διὰ τῆς παρακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἁμαρτωλοὶ κατεστάθησαν οἱ πολλοί, οὕτως καὶ διὰ τῆς ὑπακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς δίκαιοι κατασταθήσονται οἱ πολλοί.

For just as through the disobedience of one man, the many were set down as sinners. In this manner, even through the obedience of the One Man, the many were set down as righteous.

Paraphrase: Permit me one final remark about the Gift. This time, let’s see the Gift in terms of God’s covenant. You know that in order to keep our side of the bargain, we were required to personally and perfectly obey all of God’s commands all of the time. All this was wrapped up in that one command which God gave to Adam regarding the fruit of the tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. In this one command, God was teaching Adam that He always requires perfect, personal, and perpetual obedience from all His subjects. These were the terms of the covenant. Now Adam, as we all know, was not obedient and thus did not live up to his part of the covenant. He was a covenant-breaker, rather than a covenant-keeper. As a result of Adam’s failure, all those who were participants with him in that covenant, also failed. Since Adam was their representative in this covenant, his violation and the guilt of it was transferred to all those whom he represented.  In a sense, we could say that they all violated the covenant even though they were not with him in the garden.  All of Adam’s children were now branded as covenant-breakers.  Now the good news is that Jesus was also placed under this same covenant. (Gal 4:4)  He too agreed to come under these terms of perfect, perpetual, and personal obedience; and where Adam failed, He succeeded.  And just as with Adam’s people, so with Christ’s.  Jesus’ perfect record of obedience is now given to all those whom Jesus represents.  Just like we said about Adam’s people, so we can say that all those who have Jesus as their covenant representative have kept the covenant perfectly. They are branded as covenant-keepers.

Comments:

καθίστημι is often used with an object complement.

 


Rom 5:20

νόμος δὲ παρεισῆλθεν ἵνα πλεονάσῃ τὸ παράπτωμα· οὗ δὲ ἐπλεόνασεν ἡ ἁμαρτία, ὑπερεπερίσσευσεν ἡ χάρις,

Now the law came in alongside in order that the trespass might abound and where sin abounded, grace super-abounded.

Paraphrase: Now the covenant that God made with Israel at Mount Sinai is very much like this covenant that God made with Adam. God established this covenant or law with His people alongside the already existing covenant He had made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. (Gal 3:17) This Mosaic covenant required Israel to obey if they were to receive it’s benefits; and in that sense, it was like the works or merit-based covenant that God made with Adam. Now when we read the history of Israel, we can’t help but see that Israel was no more successful in keeping the terms of their covenant than Adam was. In fact, this was God’s purpose for giving them this covenant. (Gal 3:19) God didn’t mean for them to find favor with Him via this covenant. On the contrary, God meant for them to see just how unable they were to keep even its least requirements. On every page of Scripture, we read of Israel’s failure, their idolatry, their unfaithfulness, their rebellion, and their constant lapse into sin. What is the lesson we learn? We see how completely we need a covenant based on grace and not on our own works or merits. We need a covenant which depends on what God does for us and not on what we do for ourselves. And isn’t this the story of God’s chosen people? Their sin and guilt reached all the way to heaven, but God’s grace was even greater than all this sin, and He brought them a Second Adam who did for them what they could never do for themselves. This is the glorious covenant of God’s grace which we proclaim to the ends of the earth, …

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Rom 5:21

ἵνα ὥσπερ ἐβασίλευσεν ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐν τῷ θανάτῳ, οὕτως καὶ ἡ χάρις βασιλεύσῃ διὰ δικαιοσύνης εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν.

in order that just as sin reigned unto death, so in the same manner grace might reign through righteousness unto life eternal through our Lord.

Paraphrase: …and its purpose is bring an end to sin’s ruling power which always leads to death. Then, God’s grace can assume the throne in our life. It does this when we receive the Gift. This wonderful gift of a justification before God is not something we receive by working hard to earn God’s favor. That would be returning to the old covenant which Adam and Israel both proved cannot save us. On the contrary, our only hope of justification is now in the second covenant which is not based on our work but on Jesus work. By taking refuge in Jesus and receiving His perfect righteousness, we accept the Gift which God has prepared for us from all eternity. The happy result of this second and better covenant is eternal life and only because of what Jesus, our anointed King, our Second Adam did in our place.

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