Τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων, Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἔρχεται πρωῒ, σκοτίας ἔτι οὔσης, εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ βλέπει τὸν λίθον ἠρμένον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου.
On the first day of the week, Mary the Magdalene comes first, it being still dark, to the tomb, and she sees the stone taken away from the tomb.
Paraphrase: On Sunday morning even before the sun had risen, Mary Magdalene hurried to the tomb where Jesus was buried. She was shocked to discover that the stone had been removed from the tomb’s entrance.
The Catholic encyclopedia gives a possible sequence of events surrounding the discovery of the empty tomb; see here.
τρέχει οὖν καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς Σίμωνα Πέτρον καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἄλλον μαθητὴν, ὃν ἐφίλει ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἦραν τὸν Κύριον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου, καὶ οὐκ οἴδαμεν ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν.
Ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πέτρος καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητής, καὶ ἤρχοντο εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον.
ἔτρεχον δὲ οἱ δύο ὁμοῦ, καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς προέδραμεν τάχιον τοῦ Πέτρου καὶ ἦλθεν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον.
καὶ παρακύψας, βλέπει κείμενα τὰ ὀθόνια· οὐ μέντοι εἰσῆλθεν.
Ἔρχεται οὖν καὶ Σίμων Πέτρος ἀκολουθῶν αὐτῷ, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον καὶ θεωρεῖ τὰ ὀθόνια κείμενα,
καὶ τὸ σουδάριον, ὃ ἦν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ, οὐ μετὰ τῶν ὀθονίων κείμενον, ἀλλὰ χωρὶς ἐντετυλιγμένον εἰς ἕνα τόπον.
τότε οὖν εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς, ὁ ἐλθὼν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ εἶδεν καὶ ἐπίστευσεν·
οὐδέπω γὰρ ᾔδεισαν τὴν γραφὴν ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι.
Ἀπῆλθον οὖν πάλιν πρὸς αὑτοὺς οἱ μαθηταί.
Μαρία δὲ εἱστήκει πρὸς τῷ μνημείῳ ἔξω κλαίουσα. ὡς οὖν ἔκλαιεν, παρέκυψεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον,
καὶ θεωρεῖ δύο ἀγγέλους ἐν λευκοῖς καθεζομένους, ἕνα πρὸς τῇ κεφαλῇ καὶ ἕνα πρὸς τοῖς ποσίν, ὅπου ἔκειτο τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ.
Καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῇ ἐκεῖνοι, Γύναι, τί κλαίεις; Λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ὅτι Ἦραν τὸν Κύριόν μου, καὶ οὐκ οἶδα ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν.
Ταῦτα εἰποῦσα, ἐστράφη εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω, καὶ θεωρεῖ τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἑστῶτα, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδει ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν.
λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς, Γύναι, τί κλαίεις; τίνα ζητεῖς; Ἐκείνη, δοκοῦσα ὅτι ὁ κηπουρός ἐστιν, λέγει αὐτῷ, Κύριε, εἰ σὺ ἐβάστασας αὐτόν, εἰπέ μοι ποῦ ἔθηκας αὐτόν, κἀγὼ αὐτὸν ἀρῶ.
Λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς, Μαριάμ. Στραφεῖσα, ἐκείνη λέγει αὐτῷ Ἑβραϊστί, Ραββουνι, ὃ λέγεται, Διδάσκαλε.
Λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς, Μή μου ἅπτου, οὔπω γὰρ ἀναβέβηκα πρὸς τὸν Πατέρα· πορεύου δὲ πρὸς τοὺς ἀδελφούς μου καὶ εἰπὲ αὐτοῖς, Ἀναβαίνω πρὸς τὸν Πατέρα μου καὶ Πατέρα ὑμῶν, καὶ Θεόν μου καὶ Θεὸν ὑμῶν.
Ἔρχεται Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἀγγέλλουσα τοῖς μαθηταῖς ὅτι, Ἑώρακα τὸν Κύριον, καὶ ταῦτα εἶπεν αὐτῇ.
Οὔσης οὖν ὀψίας τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ, τῇ μιᾷ σαββάτων, καὶ τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων, ὅπου ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ διὰ τὸν φόβον τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν.
Therefore, being evening on that day, the first day of the week and the doors being shut where the disciples were on account of fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the middle and said to them, “Shalom to you.”
Paraphrase: Now as this day was coming to a close, the disciples were huddled together behind locked doors terrified that at any moment, the temple guard was going to burst into the room and drag them off to prison. They also didn’t know yet what to make of Mary’s report that she had seen Jesus. With all this stirring about in their minds, suddenly Jesus Himself entered the room and stood before them. “Shalom!” He announced.
εἰρήνη is the typical Jewish greeting שָׁלוֹם but in Greek.
καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν, ἔδειξεν 〈καὶ〉 τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τὴν πλευρὰν αὐτοῖς. Ἐχάρησαν οὖν οἱ μαθηταὶ, ἰδόντες τὸν Κύριον.
and saying this, he showed to them even His hands and His side. Therefore, the disciples rejoiced seeing the Lord.
Paraphrase: The disciples were utterly thunderstruck at His appearing; they stared in disbelief at their resurrected master. Jesus’ greeting was completely lost on them. When Jesus noticed this, He quickly moved to reassure them that it really was He. He showed them His nail pierced hands and the terrible wound he had received from the Roman spear that had pierced His side. Could it really be Jesus? Gradually, it dawned on the disciples that this really was their beloved Teacher come back from the dead. The report Mary had brought them was really true. With shouts of joy, they fell at His feet and embraced Him.
Εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν, Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν· καθὼς ἀπέσταλκέν με ὁ Πατήρ, κἀγὼ πέμπω ὑμᾶς.
Then Jesus said to them again, “Peace to you! Even as the Father has sent Me, even I send you.
Paraphrase: Jesus repeated His greeting to the disciples and then called them to His side. “Listen,” He said, “I am not going to stay with you any longer. (Jn 14:2) My mission here is complete, and I am going to return to My Father (Jn 14:28) who sent Me on this mission in the first place. (Jn 14:24) Now, the time has come for me to hand off this mission to you. You know that the Father covenanted with Me (Luke 22:29) in the long ages of eternity-past (Titus 1:2), that I should come to this earth to give My life a ransom for many (Mt 20:28). Now I am commissioning you to carry on this mission which I received from My Father. You are to labor to establish My kingdom wherever you go. You are, as it were, to be My hands and feet in this world. You are to announce the good news everywhere that there is a sin-offering which can permanently take away guilt and sin in any who are willing to receive it. This is the real meaning of My death only days ago. My death is the great sin-offering, and all who come under the blood of this offering have their sins forgiven and their guilt removed. Go and proclaim this news to the ends of the earth! You are now God’s ambassadors and are to lift Me up before the world as the innocent Lamb who carried the penalty of your sin so that you could might become the righteousness of God. (2Cor 5:21)”
καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν, ἐνεφύσησεν, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Λάβετε Πνεῦμα Ἅγιον.
and saying this, He breathed and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit…
Paraphrase: Then Jesus leaned over them and blew His breath on them. “By this breath, I bestow on you the Holy Spirit,” He said, “He will give you a power that is beyond your own so that you can perform this mission.
ἄν τινων, ἀφῆτε τὰς ἁμαρτίας, ἀφέωνται αὐτοῖς· ἄν τινων κρατῆτε, κεκράτηνται.
If you might forgive the sins of any person, they will be forgiven them; if you hold fast [the sins] of any, they will be held fast.
Paraphrase: Furthermore, when you announce the good news of My death as a sin offering for the world, you should also extend this promise to all who will hear it. Whenever any person takes hold of this sin-offering, all their sins are fully and freely forgiven them. Their guilt is removed, and the law has no claim against them. You yourself must make this clear to them; be sure they do not misunderstand it. Furthermore, those who refuse this sin-offering and go about to establish their own righteousness, they too must know that their sin remains on their record; they must give an account for it. My justice will show no mercy, and they will by no means come out of my court room, till they have paid the last farthing. (Matthew 5:26)
Θωμᾶς δὲ, εἷς ἐκ τῶν δώδεκα, ὁ λεγόμενος Δίδυμος, οὐκ ἦν μετ’ αὐτῶν ὅτε ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς.
Now Thomas, one of the twelve, being called Didymos, was not with them when Jesus came.
Paraphrase: Now this was the first time that Jesus had visited the twelve after His resurrection. Unfortunately, Thomas, who was one of the twelve disciples, was not there when Jesus paid them this visit.
ἔλεγον οὖν αὐτῷ οἱ ἄλλοι μαθηταί, Ἑωράκαμεν τὸν Κύριον! Ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἐὰν μὴ ἴδω ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτοῦ τὸν τύπον τῶν ἥλων, καὶ βάλω τὸν δάκτυλόν μου εἰς τὸν τύπον τῶν ἥλων, καὶ βάλω μου τὴν χεῖρα εἰς τὴν πλευρὰν αὐτοῦ, οὐ μὴ πιστεύσω.
Therefore, the other disciples were saying to him, “We have seen the Lord!” But he said to them, “Unless I might see in His hands the mark of the nails and I push my finger into the mark of the nails and I push my hand into His side, I will not believe.
Paraphrase: After this visit from Jesus, the disciples remembered Thomas and the awful melancholy that had fallen on him ever since the death of Jesus. With joy, they rushed to tell him the news. “Jesus is alive!” they shouted. “Our Lord has visited us, and we have seen him with our own eyes! He really has risen from the dead as He promised us.” Thomas frowned, “Are you people crazy?” he said. “He was crucified; there is no possible way He has come back to life. Forget it! It’s over! “No, it’s really true,” they said, “Everyone of us saw Him with our own eyes. He spoke to us! He even ate some of our food!” “I don’t believe it!” shouted Thomas, “There’s no kingdom, no eternal life, no Savior, no Lord, no Messiah. Jesus wasn’t what we thought He was. The best thing for us is to just go home, hit the reset button, and start our lives back up again. I don’t care what you tell me; the whole thing was a delusion. The only thing that could possibly convince me now is if I saw Him Myself. If He’s really alive, then let Him pay me a visit; let me see His wounds; let me put my hand in the holes in His hands and His side. Maybe then my faith would return, and I could believe all that He taught us.”
The negative used in οὐ μὴ πιστεύσω is the strongest negation possible in Greek.
Barnes: “It is not known what was the ground of the incredulity of Thomas. It is probable, however, that it was, in part, at least, the effect of deep grief, and of that despondency which fills the mind when a long-cherished hope is taken away.”
Milligan: “Yet it hardly seems as if the Resurrection of Jesus were the sole object of his incredulity. That is no doubt primarily in view; but we have already seen that the word ‘believe’ must be understood in a fuller and deeper sense at John 20:8, and the same remark applies to its use in John 20:29. It includes therefore belief in Jesus as the glorified Lord, as the Redeemer who has completely accomplished the purpose of His mission, and in whom the highest hopes of Israel are fulfilled. To Thomas the death upon the cross had appeared to crush these hopes for ever. Could he be convinced of the Resurrection they would revive; and he would believe not merely in that miracle as an isolated fact, but in the whole redeeming work of which it was the culmination and the seal. Thus also we are not to imagine that he is content to waver between conviction and doubt. His old love for his Lord—that love which seems to have burned in the breast of no apostle more warmly than in his—still continues. His mood has been one of disappointment and sorrow; and the sorrow is deepened in exact proportion to the height of his previous expectations, and to what he knows will be the joyful result if he be able to believe the tidings of the Resurrection.”
Καὶ μεθ’ ἡμέρας ὀκτὼ πάλιν ἦσαν ἔσω οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ Θωμᾶς μετ’ αὐτῶν. ἔρχεται ὁ Ἰησοῦς, τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων. καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον καὶ εἶπεν, Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν.
And after eight days again, His disciples were inside and Thomas with them. Jesus comes, the doors being closed and stands in the middle and said, “Peace to you.”
Paraphrase: A week later, the disciples were together again behind locked doors. This time, they had persuaded Thomas to join them. Suddenly, there He was, standing in the middle of the room with the astonished disciples gathering around Him. “Peace be with you,” Jesus announced.
εἶτα λέγει τῷ Θωμᾷ, Φέρε τὸν δάκτυλόν σου ὧδε, καὶ ἴδε τὰς χεῖράς μου· καὶ φέρε τὴν χεῖρά σου, καὶ βάλε εἰς τὴν πλευράν μου· καὶ μὴ γίνου ἄπιστος, ἀλλὰ πιστός.
Then He said to Thomas, “Bring your finger here and see My hands and bring your hand and push it into my side, and do not be unbelieving but believing.
Paraphrase: Immediately, Jesus turned to Thomas. When Thomas saw this, he shrunk back in shame. (Isaiah 6:5) “Come, Thomas,” Jesus said, His voice being full of love and tenderness. “Come and see My hands. Put your fingers on My wounds; take your hand too and put it into My side. It’s really me. I am the First and the Last. I am He who lives and was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Hades and of Death. (Revelation 1:18) Don’t stand outside any longer, but come near. Don’t let your faith be snuffed out by all the doubts and unbelief that Satan stirs up in your mind.
Henry: “…if we are faithless, we are Christless.”
Ἀπεκρίθη Θωμᾶς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Ὁ Κύριός μου καὶ ὁ Θεός μου!
Thomas answered and said to Him, “My Lord! And My God!“
Paraphrase: Then Thomas got up, weeping bitterly (Luke 22:62), and came to Jesus. He fell on his knees (Mark 5:22; 7:25; Luke 5:8; 17:16) before Him and confessed, “My Lord! My God!” (Hosea 2:23)
Λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ὅτι ἑώρακάς με, πεπίστευκας· μακάριοι οἱ μὴ ἰδόντες, καὶ πιστεύσαντες.
Jesus said to him, “Because you have seen Me, you have believed. Blessed are those who not seeing even believing.”
Paraphrase: Then Jesus said, “Thomas, you have believed in Me because you saw me alive and you saw the wounds in my hands, feet, and side. I am glad for your sake that you have faith in Me. There is, however, something better which you should seek. You should seek to have the faith of those people who believe in Me simply because I spoke to them, and they believed what I taught them simply because it came from Me. They know who I am; and therefore, they trust Me and give their assent to everything I teach them. If you had a stronger grasp of who I am, then you wouldn’t need to see proof every time I try to teach you something. You would believe it simply because I said it.” (1 Peter 1:8)
Hengstenberg: Christ recognizes therefore that faith also which has sight for its condition. That He will receive to Himself the well-disposed though weak in faith, that He will help their unbelief by actual demonstration, is a blessed truth, of which His treatment of Thomas is a most consolatory pledge. But the Lord places higher that faith which is present and energetic before sight comes. Thomas is here blamed for not exhibiting that faith.
Πολλὰ μὲν οὖν καὶ ἄλλα σημεῖα ἐποίησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐνώπιον τῶν μαθητῶν [αὐτοῦ], ἃ οὐκ ἔστιν γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τούτῳ·
ταῦτα δὲ γέγραπται ἵνα πιστεύητε ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ Χριστὸς, ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ ἵνα πιστεύοντες, ζωὴν ἔχητε ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ.