John 20

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John 20:1

Τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων, Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἔρχεται πρωῒ, σκοτίας ἔτι οὔσης, εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ βλέπει τὸν λίθον ἠρμένον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου.

On the first day of the week, Mary the Magdalene comes first, it being still dark, to the tomb, and she sees the stone taken away from the tomb.

Paraphrase:  On Sunday morning even before the sun had risen, Mary Magdalene hurried to the tomb where Jesus was buried.  She was shocked to discover that the stone had been removed from the tomb’s entrance.

Comments:

The Catholic encyclopedia gives a possible sequence of events surrounding the discovery of the empty tomb; see here.

 


John 20:2

τρέχει οὖν καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς Σίμωνα Πέτρον καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἄλλον μαθητὴν, ὃν ἐφίλει ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἦραν τὸν Κύριον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου, καὶ οὐκ οἴδαμεν ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν.


John 20:3

Ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πέτρος καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητής, καὶ ἤρχοντο εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον.

John 20:4

ἔτρεχον δὲ οἱ δύο ὁμοῦ, καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς προέδραμεν τάχιον τοῦ Πέτρου καὶ ἦλθεν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον.

John 20:5

καὶ παρακύψας, βλέπει κείμενα τὰ ὀθόνια· οὐ μέντοι εἰσῆλθεν.

John 20:6

Ἔρχεται οὖν καὶ Σίμων Πέτρος ἀκολουθῶν αὐτῷ, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον καὶ θεωρεῖ τὰ ὀθόνια κείμενα,

John 20:7

καὶ τὸ σουδάριον, ὃ ἦν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ, οὐ μετὰ τῶν ὀθονίων κείμενον, ἀλλὰ χωρὶς ἐντετυλιγμένον εἰς ἕνα τόπον.

John 20:8

τότε οὖν εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς, ὁ ἐλθὼν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ εἶδεν καὶ ἐπίστευσεν·

John 20:9

οὐδέπω γὰρ ᾔδεισαν τὴν γραφὴν ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι.

John 20:10

Ἀπῆλθον οὖν πάλιν πρὸς αὑτοὺς οἱ μαθηταί.

John 20:11

Μαρία δὲ εἱστήκει πρὸς τῷ μνημείῳ ἔξω κλαίουσα. ὡς οὖν ἔκλαιεν, παρέκυψεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον,

John 20:12

καὶ θεωρεῖ δύο ἀγγέλους ἐν λευκοῖς καθεζομένους, ἕνα πρὸς τῇ κεφαλῇ καὶ ἕνα πρὸς τοῖς ποσίν, ὅπου ἔκειτο τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ.

John 20:13

Καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῇ ἐκεῖνοι, Γύναι, τί κλαίεις; Λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ὅτι Ἦραν τὸν Κύριόν μου, καὶ οὐκ οἶδα ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν.

John 20:14

Ταῦτα εἰποῦσα, ἐστράφη εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω, καὶ θεωρεῖ τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἑστῶτα, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδει ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν.

John 20:15

λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς, Γύναι, τί κλαίεις; τίνα ζητεῖς; Ἐκείνη, δοκοῦσα ὅτι ὁ κηπουρός ἐστιν, λέγει αὐτῷ, Κύριε, εἰ σὺ ἐβάστασας αὐτόν, εἰπέ μοι ποῦ ἔθηκας αὐτόν, κἀγὼ αὐτὸν ἀρῶ.

John 20:16

Λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς, Μαριάμ. Στραφεῖσα, ἐκείνη λέγει αὐτῷ Ἑβραϊστί, Ραββουνι, ὃ λέγεται, Διδάσκαλε.

John 20:17

Λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς, Μή μου ἅπτου, οὔπω γὰρ ἀναβέβηκα πρὸς τὸν Πατέρα· πορεύου δὲ πρὸς τοὺς ἀδελφούς μου καὶ εἰπὲ αὐτοῖς, Ἀναβαίνω πρὸς τὸν Πατέρα μου καὶ Πατέρα ὑμῶν, καὶ Θεόν μου καὶ Θεὸν ὑμῶν.

John 20:18

Ἔρχεται Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἀγγέλλουσα τοῖς μαθηταῖς ὅτι, Ἑώρακα τὸν Κύριον, καὶ ταῦτα εἶπεν αὐτῇ.


John 20:19

Οὔσης οὖν ὀψίας τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ, τῇ μιᾷ σαββάτων, καὶ τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων, ὅπου ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ διὰ τὸν φόβον τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν.

Therefore, being evening on that day, the first day of the week and the doors being shut where the disciples were on account of fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the middle and said to them, “Shalom to you.”

Paraphrase:  Now as this day was coming to a close, the disciples were huddled together behind locked doors terrified that at any moment, the temple guard was going to burst into the room and drag them off to prison.  They also didn’t know yet what to make of Mary’s report that she had seen Jesus.  With all this stirring about in their minds, suddenly Jesus Himself entered the room and stood before them.  “Shalom!” He announced.

Comments:

εἰρήνη is the typical Jewish greeting שָׁלוֹם but in Greek.

 


John 20:20

καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν, ἔδειξεν 〈καὶ〉 τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τὴν πλευρὰν αὐτοῖς. Ἐχάρησαν οὖν οἱ μαθηταὶ, ἰδόντες τὸν Κύριον.

and saying this, he showed to them even His hands and His side.  Therefore, the disciples rejoiced seeing the Lord.

Paraphrase:  The disciples were utterly thunderstruck at His appearing; they stared in disbelief at their resurrected master.  Jesus’ greeting was completely lost on them.  When Jesus noticed this, He quickly moved to reassure them that it really was He.  He showed them His nail pierced hands and the terrible wound he had received from the Roman spear that had pierced His side.  Could it really be Jesus?  Gradually, it dawned on the disciples that this really was their beloved Teacher come back from the dead.  The report Mary had brought them was really true.  With shouts of joy, they fell at His feet and embraced Him.  

Comments:

 


John 20:21

Εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν, Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν· καθὼς ἀπέσταλκέν με ὁ Πατήρ, κἀγὼ πέμπω ὑμᾶς.

Then Jesus said to them again, “Peace to you!  Even as the Father has sent Me, even I send you. 

Paraphrase:  Jesus repeated His greeting to the disciples and then called them to His side.  “Listen,” He said, “I am not going to stay with you any longer. (Jn 14:2)  My mission here is complete, and I am going to return to My Father (Jn 14:28) who sent Me on this mission in the first place. (Jn 14:24)  Now, the time has come for me to hand off this mission to you.  You know that the Father covenanted with Me (Luke 22:29) in the long ages of eternity-past (Titus 1:2), that I should come to this earth to give My life a ransom for many (Mt 20:28).  Now I am commissioning you to carry on this mission which I received from My Father.  You are to labor to establish My kingdom wherever you go.  You are, as it were, to be My hands and feet in this world.  You are to announce the good news everywhere that there is a sin-offering which can permanently take away guilt and sin in any who are willing to receive it.  This is the real meaning of My death only days ago.  My death is the great sin-offering, and all who come under the blood of this offering have their sins forgiven and their guilt removed.  Go and proclaim this news to the ends of the earth!  You are now God’s ambassadors and are to lift Me up before the world as the innocent Lamb who carried the penalty of your sin so that you could might become the righteousness of God. (2Cor 5:21)”

Comments:

 


John 20:22

καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν, ἐνεφύσησεν, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Λάβετε Πνεῦμα Ἅγιον.

and saying this, He breathed and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit…

Paraphrase:  Then Jesus leaned over them and blew His breath on them.  “By this breath, I bestow on you the Holy Spirit,” He said, “He will give you a power that is beyond your own so that you can perform this mission. 

Comments:

 


John 20:23

ἄν τινων, ἀφῆτε τὰς ἁμαρτίας, ἀφέωνται αὐτοῖς· ἄν τινων κρατῆτε, κεκράτηνται.

If you might forgive the sins of any person, they will be forgiven them; if you hold fast [the sins] of any, they will be held fast.

Paraphrase:  Furthermore, when you announce the good news of My death as a sin offering for the world, you should also extend this promise to all who will hear it.  Whenever any person takes hold of this sin-offering, all their sins are fully and freely forgiven them.  Their guilt is removed, and the law has no claim against them.  You yourself must make this clear to them; be sure they do not misunderstand it.  Furthermore, those who refuse this sin-offering and go about to establish their own righteousness, they too must know that their sin remains on their record;  they must give an account for it.  My justice will show no mercy, and they will by no means come out of my court room, till they have paid the last farthing.

Comments:

τινων is an indefinite pronoun; the antecedent is the people whose sins the apostles announce as forgiven.

 


John 20:24

Θωμᾶς δὲ, εἷς ἐκ τῶν δώδεκα, ὁ λεγόμενος Δίδυμος, οὐκ ἦν μετ’ αὐτῶν ὅτε ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς.

 


John 20:25

ἔλεγον οὖν αὐτῷ οἱ ἄλλοι μαθηταί, Ἑωράκαμεν τὸν Κύριον! Ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἐὰν μὴ ἴδω ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτοῦ τὸν τύπον τῶν ἥλων, καὶ βάλω τὸν δάκτυλόν μου εἰς τὸν τύπον* τῶν ἥλων, καὶ βάλω μου τὴν χεῖρα εἰς τὴν πλευρὰν αὐτοῦ, οὐ μὴ πιστεύσω.

John 20:26

Καὶ μεθ’ ἡμέρας ὀκτὼ πάλιν ἦσαν ἔσω οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ Θωμᾶς μετ’ αὐτῶν. ἔρχεται ὁ Ἰησοῦς, τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων. καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον καὶ εἶπεν, Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν.

John 20:27

εἶτα λέγει τῷ Θωμᾷ, Φέρε τὸν δάκτυλόν σου ὧδε, καὶ ἴδε τὰς χεῖράς μου· καὶ φέρε τὴν χεῖρά σου, καὶ βάλε εἰς τὴν πλευράν μου· καὶ μὴ γίνου ἄπιστος, ἀλλὰ πιστός.

John 20:28

Ἀπεκρίθη Θωμᾶς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Ὁ Κύριός μου καὶ ὁ Θεός μου!

John 20:29

Λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ὅτι ἑώρακάς με, πεπίστευκας· μακάριοι οἱ μὴ ἰδόντες, καὶ πιστεύσαντες.

John 20:30

Πολλὰ μὲν οὖν καὶ ἄλλα σημεῖα ἐποίησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐνώπιον τῶν μαθητῶν [αὐτοῦ], ἃ οὐκ ἔστιν γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τούτῳ·

John 20:31

ταῦτα δὲ γέγραπται ἵνα πιστεύητε ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ Χριστὸς, ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ ἵνα πιστεύοντες, ζωὴν ἔχητε ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ.

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