What is the meaning of “Christ?”
Christ is a title of Christ, not a name. The English word “Christ” comes from the Greek word Χριστος which itself is a translation of the Hebrew word Messiah or מָשִׁיחַ; see here. This can be seen in Jesus’ interactions with the woman at the well. “The woman said to Him, ‘I know that Messiah is coming (He who is called Christ); when that One comes, He will declare all things to us.‘” (John 4:25) and in Andrew’s comment to his brother Peter: “He found first his own brother Simon and said to him, “We have found the Messiah” (which translated means Christ).” (John 1:41)
What does Messiah mean?
Messiah, comes from the verb מָשַׁח (see here). It means anointed one and has the idea of being ordained into a certain office.
Into which office was Jesus anointed?
The Bible teaches us that Jesus performed the work of the kingly office, the priestly office, and the prophetic office.
Previously, you quoted the woman at the well who was expecting the coming of the Messiah. Were all the Jews waiting and expecting the coming of a Messiah figure?
Yes, certainly. We read of this expectation in Luke 3 where the people are wondering if perhaps John the Baptizer might be the Messiah.
Now while the people were in a state of expectation and all were wondering in their hearts about John, as to whether he was the Messiah, (Luke 3:15)
But when they asked him about it, John vigorously denied that he was the Messiah.
This is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent to him priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, “Who are you?” And he confessed and did not deny, but confessed, “I am not the Christ.” (John 1:19-20)
In John 7, we read of the people disagreeing amongst themselves as to whether Jesus might not be the Messiah.
Look, He is speaking publicly, and they are saying nothing to Him. The rulers do not really know that this is the Messiah, do they? “However, we know where this man is from; but whenever the Messiah may come, no one knows where He is from. (John 7:26-27)
But many of the crowd believed in Him; and they were saying, “When the Christ comes, He will not perform more signs than those which this man has, will He? (John 7:31)
Furthermore, the Jews expected the Messiah to reign forever (John 12:34) and to be a son of David. (Matthew 21:9; 22:42) All these show that there was a general expectation amongst the Jewish people of a coming Messiah king. The great Jewish scholar, Maimonides, put belief in the coming Messiah as one of the foundational doctrines of the Jewish faith; see article 12 of his thirteen. source
What is the origin of this belief in a coming Messiah?
The entire Old Testament is bound together by the idea that God’s kingdom is being reestablished on earth after it had fallen into the hands of Satan. (Genesis 3:15) The Messiah is the great king who will take back the kingdom and present it to God again.
But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are Christ’s at His coming, then comes the end, when He hands over the kingdom to the God and Father, when He has abolished all rule and all authority and power. (1 Corinthians 15:23-24)
The most important point here is to keep in mind the organic unity of the Old Testament. Its predictions are not isolated, but features of one grand prophetic picture; its ritual and institutions parts of one great system; its history, not loosely connected events, but an organic development tending towards a definite end. Viewed in its innermost substance, the history of the Old Testament is not different from its typical institutions, nor yet these two from its predictions. The idea, underlying all, is God’s gracious manifestation in the world—the Kingdom of God; the meaning of all—the establishment of this Kingdom upon earth. That gracious purpose was, so to speak, individualised, and the Kingdom actually established in the Messiah. Both the fundamental and the final relationship in view was that of God towards man, and of man towards God: the former as expressed by the word Father; the latter by that of Servant—or rather the combination of the two ideas: ‘Son-Servant.’ This was already implied in the so-called Protevangel; and in this sense also the words of Jesus hold true: ‘Before Abraham came into being, I am.’ source
Son of Man
Son of God