What is the meaning of “Christ?”
Christ is a title of Christ, not a name. The English word “Christ” comes from the Greek word Χριστος which itself is a translation of the Hebrew word Messiah or מָשִׁיחַ; see here. This can be seen in Jesus’ interactions with the woman at the well.
“The woman said to Him, ‘I know that Messiah is coming (He who is called Christ); when that One comes, He will declare all things to us.‘” (John 4:25)
and in Andrew’s comment to his brother Peter:
“He found first his own brother Simon and said to him, “We have found the Messiah” (which translated means Christ).” (John 1:41)
What does Messiah mean?
Messiah, comes from the verb מָשַׁח (see here). It means anointed one and has the idea of being ordained to a certain office.
Into which office was Jesus anointed?
The Bible teaches us that Jesus performed the work of the kingly, the priestly, and the prophetic office.
Previously, you quoted the woman at the well who was expecting the coming of the Messiah. Were all the Jews waiting and expecting the coming of a Messiah figure?
Yes, certainly. We read of this expectation in Luke 3 where the people are wondering if perhaps John the Baptizer might be the Messiah.
Now while the people were in a state of expectation and all were wondering in their hearts about John, as to whether he was the Messiah, (Luke 3:15)
But when they asked him about it, John vigorously denied that he was the Messiah.
This is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent to him priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, “Who are you?” And he confessed and did not deny, but confessed, “I am not the Christ.” (John 1:19-20)
In John 7, we read of the people disagreeing amongst themselves as to whether Jesus might not be the Messiah.
Look, He is speaking publicly, and they are saying nothing to Him. The rulers do not really know that this is the Messiah, do they? “However, we know where this man is from; but whenever the Messiah may come, no one knows where He is from. (John 7:26-27)
But many of the crowd believed in Him; and they were saying, “When the Christ comes, He will not perform more signs than those which this man has, will He? (John 7:31)
Furthermore, the Jews expected the Messiah to reign forever (John 12:34) and to be a son of David. (Matthew 21:9; 22:42) All these show that there was a general expectation amongst the Jewish people of a coming Messiah king. The great Jewish scholar, Maimonides, put belief in the coming Messiah as one of the foundational doctrines of the Jewish faith; see article 12 of his thirteen. source
What is the origin of this belief in a coming Messiah?
The entire Old Testament is bound together by the idea that God’s kingdom is being reestablished on earth after it had fallen into the hands of Satan. (Genesis 3:15) God the Father and God the Son had covenanted (Luke 22:29) in eternity past (Titus 1:2) to save a people. (John 6:37-40) Jesus is the One who has come to earth to execute on this plan. This was His mediatorial mission which was finished on the cross (John 19:30), was proven by His resurrection (Acts 2:32; 3:15; 4:10; 5:30), and was celebrated at His ascension into heaven and sitting at His Father’s right hand. (Psalm 110:1; Acts 2:34) Although the mission was finished and the victory won, not all the enemies are fully subjugated. Christ sits at the right hand of the Father until the last enemy is defeated. (Psalm 110:1) There are still some rulers, authorities, and powers that remain active and are not yet humbled under His feet. The last enemy Christ will destroy is death itself. (1 Corinthians 15:24-26) Then when the last enemy is subjugated, Christ will return the kingdom to the Father, and God will be all and in all. (1 Corinthians 15:27-28) Then, the serpent’s head will be crushed. (Genesis 3:15) Edersheim writes:
The most important point here is to keep in mind the organic unity of the Old Testament. Its predictions are not isolated, but features of one grand prophetic picture; its ritual and institutions parts of one great system; its history, not loosely connected events, but an organic development tending towards a definite end. Viewed in its innermost substance, the history of the Old Testament is not different from its typical institutions, nor yet these two from its predictions. The idea, underlying all, is God’s gracious manifestation in the world—the Kingdom of God; the meaning of all—the establishment of this Kingdom upon earth. That gracious purpose was, so to speak, individualized, and the Kingdom actually established in the Messiah. Both the fundamental and the final relationship in view was that of God towards man, and of man towards God: the former as expressed by the word Father; the latter by that of Servant—or rather the combination of the two ideas: ‘Son-Servant.’ This was already implied in the so-called Protevangel; and in this sense also the words of Jesus hold true: ‘Before Abraham came into being, I am.’ source
Son of Man
Son of God