Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὁ μὴ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τῶν προβάτων ἀλλὰ ἀναβαίνων ἀλλαχόθεν ἐκεῖνος κλέπτης ἐστὶν καὶ λῃστής·
ὁ δὲ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας ποιμήν ἐστιν τῶν προβάτων.
τούτῳ ὁ θυρωρὸς ἀνοίγει, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούει καὶ τὰ ἴδια πρόβατα φωνεῖ κατ’ ὄνομα καὶ ἐξάγει αὐτά.
ὅταν τὰ ἴδια πάντα ἐκβάλῃ, ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν πορεύεται, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα αὐτῷ ἀκολουθεῖ, ὅτι οἴδασιν τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ· John 10:5 ἀλλοτρίῳ δὲ οὐ μὴ ἀκολουθήσουσιν ἀλλὰ φεύξονται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδασι τῶν ἀλλοτρίων τὴν φωνήν.
ταύτην τὴν παροιμίαν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τίνα ἦν ἃ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς.
Εἶπεν οὖν πάλιν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα τῶν προβάτων.
πάντες ὅσοι ἦλθον πρὸ ἐμοῦ κλέπται εἰσὶν καὶ λῃσταί· ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἤκουσαν αὐτῶν τὰ πρόβατα.
ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα· δι’ ἐμοῦ ἐάν τις εἰσέλθῃ σωθήσεται καὶ εἰσελεύσεται καὶ ἐξελεύσεται καὶ νομὴν εὑρήσει.
ὁ κλέπτης οὐκ ἔρχεται εἰ μὴ ἵνα κλέψῃ καὶ θύσῃ καὶ ἀπολέσῃ· ἐγὼ ἦλθον ἵνα ζωὴν ἔχωσιν καὶ περισσὸν ἔχωσιν.
Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός· ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλὸς τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ τίθησιν ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων·
ὁ μισθωτὸς καὶ οὐκ ὢν ποιμήν, οὗ οὐκ ἔστιν τὰ πρόβατα ἴδια, θεωρεῖ τὸν λύκον ἐρχόμενον καὶ ἀφίησιν τὰ πρόβατα καὶ φεύγει— καὶ ὁ λύκος ἁρπάζει αὐτὰ καὶ σκορπίζει—
ὅτι μισθωτός ἐστιν καὶ οὐ μέλει αὐτῷ περὶ τῶν προβάτων.
ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός, καὶ γινώσκω τὰ ἐμὰ καὶ γινώσκουσί με τὰ ἐμά,
καθὼς γινώσκει με ὁ πατὴρ κἀγὼ γινώσκω τὸν πατέρα, καὶ τὴν ψυχήν μου τίθημι ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων.
καὶ ἄλλα πρόβατα ἔχω ἃ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τῆς αὐλῆς ταύτης· κἀκεῖνα δεῖ με ἀγαγεῖν, καὶ τῆς φωνῆς μου ἀκούσουσιν, καὶ γενήσονται μία ποίμνη, εἷς ποιμήν.
διὰ τοῦτό με ὁ πατὴρ ἀγαπᾷ ὅτι ἐγὼ τίθημι τὴν ψυχήν μου, ἵνα πάλιν λάβω αὐτήν.
οὐδεὶς αἴρει αὐτὴν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ, ἀλλ’ ἐγὼ τίθημι αὐτὴν ἀπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. ἐξουσίαν ἔχω θεῖναι αὐτήν, καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἔχω πάλιν λαβεῖν αὐτήν· ταύτην τὴν ἐντολὴν ἔλαβον παρὰ τοῦ πατρός μου.
Σχίσμα πάλιν ἐγένετο ἐν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις διὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους.
ἔλεγον δὲ πολλοὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν· Δαιμόνιον ἔχει καὶ μαίνεται· τί αὐτοῦ ἀκούετε;
ἄλλοι ἔλεγον· Ταῦτα τὰ ῥήματα οὐκ ἔστιν δαιμονιζομένου· μὴ δαιμόνιον δύναται τυφλῶν ὀφθαλμοὺς ἀνοῖξαι;
Ἐγένετο τότε τὰ ἐγκαίνια ἐν τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις
Then the feast of dedication became in Jerusalem.
Paraphrase: Now the winter season had arrived, and the Jews were gearing up for the feast of Dedication or Hanukkah.
καὶ περιεπάτει ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἐν τῇ στοᾷ τοῦ Σολομῶνος.
and Jesus was walking around in the temple in the porch of Solomon.
Paraphrase: At this time, Jesus had entered the temple compound and was strolling about in Solomon’s porch.
ἐκύκλωσαν οὖν αὐτὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ ἔλεγον αὐτῷ· Ἕως πότε τὴν ψυχὴν ἡμῶν αἴρεις; εἰ σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστός, εἰπὲ ἡμῖν παρρησίᾳ.
Then, the Jews gathered around Him and were saying to Him, “Until how long will you lift up our soul? if you are the Messiah, say to us plainly.
Paraphrase: When the Jewish worshippers who were also in the temple at that time saw Jesus, they began to mill about Him and repeatedly asked about His claims. “Really now,” they said, “Stop beating around the bush! Answer us YES or NO; are you the Messiah or not? Don’t keep us wondering any longer. Tell us plainly and openly who you think you are.”
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Εἶπον ὑμῖν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε· τὰ ἔργα ἃ ἐγὼ ποιῶ ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρός μου ταῦτα μαρτυρεῖ περὶ ἐμοῦ·
Jesus answered them, “I spoke to you and you do not believe. The works which I do in the Name of my Father, these testify about Me.
Paraphrase: Jesus answered them, “Don’t accuse Me of beating around the bush; I’ve already told you plainly and openly who I am. Your problem isn’t My lack of clarity, but your stubborn refusal to believe what I am teaching you. Furthermore, I have done many miracles which clearly establish My word to be the very words of God Himself. You’ve seen them; everyone has seen them. I did not do them in a corner. The almighty God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is My Father. He is the One who sent Me, and you and I both know that no one is able to do miracles like these unless God is with him.” (John 3:2)
ἀλλὰ ὑμεῖς οὐ πιστεύετε, ὅτι οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐκ τῶν προβάτων τῶν ἐμῶν.
but you do not believe because you are not of My sheep.
Paraphrase: “The truth is, you are not those whom My Father has given Me to save. My Father and I covenanted in eternity past to save a people and to show them our glory. (John 17:22. 24) Your refusal to believe Me marks you out as one of those whom My Father has passed by and left to their own destruction.”
- 8:1 – It pleased God, in his eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, His only begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and man, the Prophet, Priest, and King, the Head and Savior of His church, the Heir of all things, and Judge of the world: unto whom He did from all eternity give a people, to be His seed, and to be by Him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified. source
- 3:7 – The rest of mankind God was pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel of His own will, whereby He extendeth or withholdeth mercy, as He pleaseth, for the glory of His sovereign power over His creatures, to pass by; and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath for their sin, to the praise of His glorious justice. source
τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἐμὰ τῆς φωνῆς μου ἀκούουσιν, κἀγὼ γινώσκω αὐτά, καὶ ἀκολουθοῦσίν μοι,
My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me.
Paraphrase: “On the other hand, those who are My sheep and have been chosen by My Father to share in our glory are known by the fact that they hear My voice. When they hear My voice, they do not hesitate. They deny themselves, they take up their cross, and they follow Me. These are My sheep, and these are the ones in whom I delight.”
κἀγὼ δίδωμι αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἀπόλωνται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ οὐχ ἁρπάσει τις αὐτὰ ἐκ τῆς χειρός μου.
and I give to them life eternal, and they will never perish into the age, and anyone will not snatch them out of My hand.
Paraphrase: “To these My sheep, I give eternal life. For as long as time continues, they will never, ever perish. There is not anyone, anywhere who will ever be able to snatch them away from Me. My hold on them will never let go; I will surely bring them one day into My Father’s glorious house, and they will share in our glory.”
οὐ μὴ with a subjunctive verb is the strongest negation possible in Greek; GGBB 468.
- 17:1 – They, whom God hath accepted in His Beloved, effectually called, and sanctified by His Spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace, but shall certainly persevere therein to the end, and be eternally saved.
- 17:2 – This perseverance of the saints depends not upon their own free will, but upon the immutability of the decree of election, flowing from the free and unchangeable love of God the Father; upon the efficacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ, the abiding of the Spirit, and of the seed of God within them, and the nature of the covenant of grace: from all which ariseth also the certainty and infallibility thereof. source
ὁ πατήρ μου ὃ δέδωκέν μοι πάντων μεῖζων ἐστιν, καὶ οὐδεὶς δύναται ἁρπάζειν ἐκ τῆς χειρὸς τοῦ πατρός.
My Father, who gave to Me is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch out of the hand of My Father.
Paraphrase: Furthermore, not only are My sheep in My hand, but they are also in My Father’s hand. After all, it was God, My Father who gave them to Me in the eternal covenant. (Luke 22:29) My Father is the most high God, the Creator and Sustainer of all things. Do you think there is any creature so presumptuous as to think He could really seize one of Our sheep and carry it off?
Note the genitive of comparison μεῖζων. GGBB 110.
ἐγὼ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἕν ἐσμεν.
I and My Father are one.
Paraphrase: Any sheep who is in My hands is also in My Father’s hands. The reason for this is simple; My Father and I, while distinct Persons, are of the same divine essence.
Why did Jesus use the neuter ἕν? Robertson says because He was referring to one nature or essence, not one person. source Clearly, the Jews understand it in this sense since they immediately take up stones to stone Him.
The Son of God, the second person in the Trinity, being very and eternal God, of one substance and equal with the Father, did, when the fullness of time was come, take upon Him man’s nature, with all the essential properties, and common infirmities thereof, yet without sin; being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the virgin Mary, of her substance. So that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures, the Godhead and the manhood, were inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion. Which person is very God, and very man, yet one Christ, the only Mediator between God and man. source
Ἐβάστασαν οὖν πάλιν λίθους οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἵνα λιθάσωσιν αὐτόν.
Therefore, the Jews took up stones again in order that they might stone him.
Paraphrase: At this startling claim, the Jews were incensed. Again, they set about gathering stones for a stoning. Jesus had committed blasphemy; and for that, He must die.
I understand Ἐβάστασαν to have an ingressive nuance (GGBB 558).
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Πολλὰ ἔργα καλὰ ἔδειξα ὑμῖν ἐκ τοῦ πατρός· διὰ ποῖον αὐτῶν ἔργον ἐμὲ λιθάζετε;
Jesus answered them, “Many good works I showed you from the Father; on account of which of this work do you stone Me?
Paraphrase: Jesus responded, “Now you all have seen just how many wonderful things I have done here. All these works were not so much Me working but My Father as is clear since no one can do miracles like this unless God gives him the power to do it. Now for which of these good things that I did do you want to execute me by stoning?
ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι· Περὶ καλοῦ ἔργου οὐ λιθάζομέν σε ἀλλὰ περὶ βλασφημίας, καὶ ὅτι σὺ ἄνθρωπος ὢν ποιεῖς σεαυτὸν θεόν.
The Jews answered Him, “For good works, we do not stone you but for blasphemy; even because your being a man make yourself God.
Paraphrase: The Jews responded, “No, you misunderstand us. The charge we are bringing and which calls for your execution by stoning is not any of the good works which you did. We acknowledge that You have done many wonderful things for many people. We are bringing the charge of blasphemy because even though you are just a human like all the rest of us, yet you claim to be God Himself!”
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Οὐκ ἔστιν γεγραμμένον ἐν τῷ νόμῳ ὑμῶν ὅτι Ἐγὼ εἶπα· Θεοί ἐστε;
Jesus answered them, “Is it not written in your law, “I said you are gods”?
Paraphrase: “Wait a minute,” Jesus said. “Doesn’t it say in Scripture “I said, You are gods.” (Psalm 82:6)?
εἰ ἐκείνους εἶπεν θεοὺς πρὸς οὓς ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ οὐ δύναται λυθῆναι ἡ γραφή,
If he said those [are] gods to whom the word of God was, (and the Scripture is not able to be annulled)
Paraphrase: Now if David here calls these people who received God’s word “gods” and I don’t need to remind you that Scripture is infallible,
ὃν ὁ πατὴρ ἡγίασεν καὶ ἀπέστειλεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον ὑμεῖς λέγετε ὅτι Βλασφημεῖς, ὅτι εἶπον· Υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ εἰμι;
who the Father sanctified and sent into the world you say, “You are blaspheming! because I said the Son of God I am.
Paraphrase: then why would you bring a charge of blasphemy against Me when I claim to be the Son of God? Clearly even God Himself speaking through the Psalmist here calls certain human persons “gods”. If this is the case, then it certainly would be rash to conclude that someone is guilty of blasphemy just because they claim to be “god”. Maybe you all should step back and consider the possibility that I may be the very One who the Father has set apart in His covenant of redemption in eternity past and is now sending into the world to execute this plan for the saving of men and the glory of God’s holy Name.
εἰ οὐ ποιῶ τὰ ἔργα τοῦ πατρός μου, μὴ πιστεύετέ μοι·
if I do not the works of My Father, do not believe Me.
Paraphrase: Now let us all agree to this. If I am not able to do things which a person could only do who was sent by God, then you should not believe My claim to be the Messiah, the Son of God.
εἰ δὲ ποιῶ, κἂν ἐμοὶ μὴ πιστεύητε τοῖς ἔργοις πιστεύετε, ἵνα γνῶτε καὶ γινώσκητε ὅτι ἐν ἐμοὶ ὁ πατὴρ κἀγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρί.
but if I do, even Me you do not believe, believe the works in order that you might know and understand that in Me the Father is and I in the Father.
Paraphrase: but if I am doing and have done actions which a person can do only if He is sent by God, then you are under an obligation to believe My claim. Now I know it is difficult for anyone to believe what I am saying about Myself; but even if you find these claims impossible to accept, at least believe Me because of the miracles I am doing. We all know that miracles are beyond the power of ordinary people to perform. Only those people who are on a mission from God can perform miracles. When you see these, you should know recognize the credentials of a divine messenger. Now this is what I am claiming and what you should believe. There is a completely unique relationship between God the Father and Myself, and the miracles I am doing are all just signs of God the Father working through Me to accomplish His perfect plan.
All of John 17 explains and expands on the glorious mystery of ἐν ἐμοὶ ὁ πατὴρ κἀγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρί. Also John 14:10. Meyer writes on this verse:
This now is the unity which He meant in v30; not essential unity (old orthodox explanation of the περιχώρησις essentialis patris in filio et filii in patre, see Calovius), although it is metaphysically the fundamental condition, but dynamic unity: the Father lives and moves in Christ, who is His active organ, and again Christ is in the Father, so far as Christ in God is the power which determines the execution of the divine ἔργον. The thought that Christ has in God “the ground of His existence and working” (De Wette), lies far remote from the words κἀγὼ ἐν αὐτῷ, because the relation of the clauses of the proposition must be equal. But this relation is nothing else than that of inner, active, reciprocal fellowship. In accordance therewith, the Father is in the Son, as in the executor of His work, as the Son is also in the Father, because Christ is the regulative and determining agens et movens of the work of redemption in the Father. Comp. the many Pauline passages which represent all the divine redemptive activity as taking place in Christ; (Rom. 8:39; Eph. 1:3f). source
ἐζήτουν οὖν πάλιν αὐτὸν πιάσαι· καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν.
Therefore, they again sought to arrest Him and He departed out of their hand.
Paraphrase: Because Jesus had said this, they resumed their efforts to arrest Him. Jesus, however, slipped away and they were not able to arrest Him.
ἐζήτουν = perhaps a conative imperfect?
Καὶ ἀπῆλθεν πάλιν πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου εἰς τὸν τόπον ὅπου ἦν Ἰωάννης τὸ πρῶτον βαπτίζων, καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐκεῖ.
and He departed again from the Jordan into the place where John was baptizing at first, and He remained there.
Paraphrase: Then once again, Jesus left the Jordan river valley. This time He went to the place where John had made his start and had been baptizing those who repented. This place was called Bethabara (John 1:28). Here Jesus stayed for a time.
καὶ πολλοὶ ἦλθον πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἰωάννης μὲν σημεῖον ἐποίησεν οὐδέν, πάντα δὲ ὅσα εἶπεν Ἰωάννης περὶ τούτου ἀληθῆ ἦν.
and many came to Him and were saying, “John on the one hand did no signs; but all things as many as John said concerning this Man were true.
Paraphrase: While Jesus was staying here, many people came to Him and compared Him to John the Baptizer. They said, “We all regarded John as a truly great man and sent from God. Many of us submitted to his baptism. John, however, did not do any miracles as Jesus does. Now if we all heard and embraced the message of John who did no miracles, then how much more should we believe the message which Jesus brings when He has done many miracles to prove that He really was sent from God? Indeed, all the claims that John made about Jesus have come true!”
καὶ πολλοὶ ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτὸν ἐκεῖ.
and many believed in Him there.
Paraphrase: Now here it was that many of the people came to see that Jesus really was the Son of God and the promised Messiah. As a result, they put their trust in Him began to follow Him.