Greek I; lesson 12

John 1:23

ἔφη· ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ· εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, καθὼς εἶπεν Ἠσαΐας ὁ προφήτης.

ἔφη· ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος

βοωντος is a participle. The circumflex above the omega means a contraction has occurred.

βοα-         stem
βοαo         connecting vowel
βοω           contraction
βοωντ          participle morpheme
βοωντος         case ending

You might wonder why βοωντος violates principle 7 here.  Likely the reason is because John is here quoting the OT.

ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ·
Even if you can’t parse ερημω, you will be able to parse its article.
εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου,
There are two things noteworthy about ευθυνατε:

  1. Its mood imperative.
  2. This verb is aorist tense, but where is the tense formative? This is what is called a liquid verb. The stem is ευθυν- which you can see ends in a nasal which is a liquid letter. Because of this, the tense formative is not σα but α. There is no connecting vowel in liquid verbs.
ευθυν- α τε
verb stem tense formative verb ending
καθὼς εἶπεν Ἠσαΐας ὁ προφήτης.
ο προφητης is in apposition to Ησαιας. Ησαιας is the subject of what verb?
καθως is a subordinating conjunction here and hence, a DMW. This dependent clause is adverbial. What verb is it modifying? What adverbial question is it answering?

John 1:24

Καὶ ἀπεσταλμένοι ἦσαν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων.

απεσταλμενοι ησαν is what is called a periphrastic construction. This simply means that a form of ειμι is being used with a participle to form the main verb. We do the same thing in English with our progressive tense. Since we have an imperfect form of ειμι with a perfect participle, the meaning is pluperfect (see BBG 30.14). So we will translate this as,
They had been sent by the pharisees.”
Notice the possible uses for εκ. Here it is clearly used in the sense of “means”; “…sent by the Pharisees.”

John 1:25

καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτὸν καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ· τί οὖν βαπτίζεις εἰ σὺ οὐκ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς οὐδὲ Ἠλίας οὐδὲ ὁ προφήτης;

Note the evolution of ἠρώτησαν:

ερωτα-        stem
ηρωτα         augment
ηρωτασα       tense formative
ηρωτησα         principle 12
ηρωτησαν         verb ending


τί οὖν βαπτίζεις εἰ σὺ οὐκ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς οὐδὲ Ἠλίας οὐδὲ ὁ προφήτης;

protasis apodosis
εἰ σὺ οὐκ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς οὐδὲ Ἠλίας οὐδὲ ὁ προφήτης τι ουν βαπτιζεις
if you are neither the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the prophet, then why do you baptize?
What kind of conditional statement is this (RWP will always help you identify conditions).
εἰ in this verse cannot be distinguished from εἶ simply on the basis of spelling.

The first one is a subordinating conjunction introducing a hypothetical proposition; hence, a DMW.

The second is the second person plural form of ειμι.

χριστος, ηλιας, and προφητης are PNs.

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