Greek I; Lesson 7

John 1:14

Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας.

Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο
σαρξ is the PN. Why must it be in the nominative case?
How do you know that λογος is the subject and not σαρξ?
What kind of conjunction is και?
See the evolution of ἐσκήνωσεν:

σκηνo-          stem
εσκηνo            add the augment
εσκηνoσε          add the tense formativee
εσκηνωσε           principle 12
εσκηνωσεν           movable nu

ἐν ἡμῖν
This is a prepositional phrase. What part of speech is εν? What is the OP (cf. here)? Is the phrase adverbial or adjectival? What word does it modify? Which of the adverbial/adjectival questions is being answered?
καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ
δόξαν is the DO. Here is the evolution of ἐθεασάμεθα:

θεα-           stem
εθεα             add the augment
εθεασα           add the tense formative
εθεασαμεθα       add the verb ending

Note the verb ending. It is clearly a middle/passive ending. Why do we translate it in the active voice?
δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός
δόξαν here is in apposition to the previous δόξαν.
ὡς is used to make comparisons (GGBB 761–762).
μονογενους is a substantival adjective.
πατρός is a third declension noun; here it is genitive singular and the OP of παρὰ.
πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας.
πληρης is an adjective meaning “full”. Are χάριτος and ἀληθείας genitives of material or content (GGBB p. 91)?
It is a good idea to learn how to use MBG. Here’s how:

  • First, you need to find the lexical form of the word you are analyzing. The lexical form of χάριτος is χαρις. MBG gives n3c(1) as the code for this noun (see the index in the back). If you go to MBG p. 194, you’ll see the paradigm. This will help you parse it. Compare this with the case endings.
  • The lexical form of ἀληθείας is αληθεια. MBG gives its code as n-1a. You’ll find the information for these nouns on page 168 of MBG.
Is this a compound sentence or a compound predicate?  

John 1:15

Ἰωάννης μαρτυρεῖ περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ κέκραγεν λέγων·

John is the subject of μαρτυρει and κεκραγεν.
What is the squiggly line over the iota in μαρτυρει? A circumflex often indicates that a contraction has occurred.

μαρτυρε-       stem
μαρτυρεε         add the connecting vowel
μαρτυρεει          add the verb ending
μαρτυρει              contraction (εε + ι = ει)

Notice the reduplication.
λεγων is a participle; see the present active participle memory forms.

οὗτος ἦν ὃν εἰπον·

Since there is no noun for ουτος to modify, you’ll have to supply one (BBG 13.7).
ἦν is from ειμι.
ὃν εἰπον
The relative pronoun ον is accusative case. Hence, it must be the object of ειπον. “This One was; I said [about] Him…”


ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος ἔμπροσθεν μου γέγονεν,

Understand the difference between direct and indirect discourse.
ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος
ερχομενος is articular. The article before οπισω belongs with ερχομενος. ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος
Since it is articular, it must be adjectival; and hence, either attributive or substantival. Here it is substantival, “the One Who comes…” Since it is substantival, it must be functioning as a noun. Here it is the subject of γεγονεν.
οπισω μου is modifying ερχομενος.
ἔμπροσθεν μου
What part of speech is εμπροσθεν? What is the OP?

ὅτι πρῶτος μου ἦν.

Another dependent clause. οτι can actually be either a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. Sometimes, it means “because…” (a subordinating conjunction). Other times, it means “that…” (a relative pronoun). Only the context can decide. Here, it is likely a subordinating conjunction. Hence, the dependent clause is adverbial and modifies γεγονεν.
Consult RWP for the difference in meaning between ἔμπροσθεν μου and πρῶτος μου.

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