Θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε·
This word is a merger between ουδε and the number εις (don’t confuse εις with the preposition of the same spelling). The numeral εις is inflected, and this is the nominative singular form of ουδεις (see the entire paradigm on BBG p. 350). It is translated “No one…”
Note the tense formative in εωρακεν; this means perfect tense (BBG 25.5).
This verb is from οραω. Even though this verb is highly irregular, there are a few clues you should pick up on:
- The kappa which is the tense formative of the perfect active tense.
- The -εν ending which almost always means third singular.
The only difficult thing here is figuring out the lexical form. For this, you should use some kind of Bible software or this. Optional: If you want to understand the εω and you are feeling sufficiently brave, feel free to read footnote #1 on page 270 of MBG.
μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν είς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο.
μονογενης is an adjective modifying θεος. There is considerable debate about the meaning of this adjective. The older translators thought this word came from μονο and γενναω (hence, “only begotten”). More contemporary translators think it comes from μονο and γενος (hence, only one of its kind or “unique”). Recently, this debate has sprung up again with a return to the traditional view; see here.
ὁ ὢν είς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς
This entire set of words is a participial phrase. ων is the participle (from the verb ειμι) ? ? ?
Inside this participial phrase is the prepositional phrase είς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς. ? κολπον is a noun functioning as the OP of είς.
Watch εξηγησατο evolve:
In your English translation, you will need to supply a DO; “…that One revealed [Him].” ?
Καὶ αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία τοῦ Ἰωάννου,
ὅτε ἀπέστειλαν πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων ἱερεῖς καὶ Λευίτας
οτε is a DMW. ? ?
The verb ἀπέστειλαν undergoes some interesting changes which we will not take time for now. You should recognize the augment and the third plural ending (which you also could have gathered from the fact that Ἰουδαῖοι is the subject).
ἵνα ἐρωτήσωσιν αὐτὸν· σὺ τίς εἶ;?
In Greek, a semi-colon is a question mark.
What is the lexical form of ει? of ἐρωτήσωσιν? Here is the evolution of ἐρωτήσωσιν: