Matthew 16

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Matt 16:1

Καὶ προσελθόντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ Σαδδουκαῖοι πειράζοντες ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν σημεῖον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐπιδεῖξαι αὐτοῖς.

Matt 16:2

ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· Ὀψίας γενομένης λέγετε· Εὐδία, πυρράζει γὰρ ὁ οὐρανός·

Matt 16:3

καὶ πρωΐ· Σήμερον χειμών, πυρράζει γὰρ στυγνάζων ὁ οὐρανός. τὸ μὲν πρόσωπον τοῦ οὐρανοῦ γινώσκετε διακρίνειν, τὰ δὲ σημεῖα τῶν καιρῶν οὐ δύνασθε.

Matt 16:4

Γενεὰ πονηρὰ καὶ μοιχαλὶς σημεῖον ἐπιζητεῖ, καὶ σημεῖον οὐ δοθήσεται αὐτῇ εἰ μὴ τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ. καὶ καταλιπὼν αὐτοὺς ἀπῆλθεν.

Matt 16:5 Καὶ ἐλθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ εἰς τὸ πέραν ἐπελάθοντο ἄρτους λαβεῖν.

Matt 16:6

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· Ὁρᾶτε καὶ προσέχετε ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων.

Matt 16:7

οἱ δὲ διελογίζοντο ἐν ἑαυτοῖς λέγοντες ὅτι Ἄρτους οὐκ ἐλάβομεν.

Matt 16:8

γνοὺς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν· Τί διαλογίζεσθε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, ὀλιγόπιστοι, ὅτι ἄρτους οὐκ ἐλάβετε;

Matt 16:9

οὔπω νοεῖτε, οὐδὲ μνημονεύετε τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους τῶν πεντακισχιλίων καὶ πόσους κοφίνους ἐλάβετε;

Matt 16:10

οὐδὲ τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἄρτους τῶν τετρακισχιλίων καὶ πόσας σπυρίδας ἐλάβετε;

Matt 16:11

πῶς οὐ νοεῖτε ὅτι οὐ περὶ ἄρτων εἶπον ὑμῖν; προσέχετε δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων.


Matt 16:12

τότε συνῆκαν ὅτι οὐκ εἶπεν προσέχειν ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν ἄρτων ἀλλὰ ἀπὸ τῆς διδαχῆς τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων.

Paraphrase:

Comments:


Matt 16:13

Ἐλθὼν δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὰ μέρη Καισαρείας τῆς Φιλίππου ἠρώτα τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ λέγων· Τίνα λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου;

Now Jesus, after coming into the region of Caesarea of Phillipi, asked His disciples saying “Who do men say the Son of Man to be?”

Paraphrase:

Comments:

ἠρώτα is an imperfect. RWP says it is inchoative meaning a nuance of beginning an action “…and he began questioning His disciples…”

εἶναι a complementary infinitive with λέγουσιν.

There were two cities called Caesarea in Palestine. One was on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (see here and Acts 21:8). It was here that Paul presented his case to Felix (Acts 24) and then to King Agrippa (Acts 26). Herod also died in this city (Acts 12:21f). The Caesarea spoken of here is called Caesarea of Phillipi and is in the Golan Heights (see here).


Matt 16:14

οἱ δὲ εἶπαν· Οἱ μὲν Ἰωάννην τὸν βαπτιστήν, ἄλλοι δὲ Ἠλίαν, ἕτεροι δὲ Ἰερεμίαν ἢ ἕνα τῶν προφητῶν.

and they said, “Some John the baptizer, but others Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.

Paraphrase:

Comments:

The article οἱ is used both times here as a pronoun.


Matt 16:15

λέγει αὐτοῖς· Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι;

He says to them, “but you, who do you say me to be?”

Paraphrase:

Comments:

The pronoun is pushed out front for purposes of emphasis?


Matt 16:16

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος εἶπεν· Σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος.

and Simon Peter answering said, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”

Paraphrase:

Comments:

When a pronoun and noun are both together in an equative clause, then the pronoun is the subject (GGBB 43). When the PN is articular, see principle 10.


Matt 16:17

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Μακάριος εἶ, Σίμων Βαριωνᾶ, ὅτι σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα οὐκ ἀπεκάλυψέν σοι ἀλλ’ ὁ πατήρ μου ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·

and answering, Jesus said to him, “Happy you are, Simon Barjonah, because flesh and blood did not reveal to you but My Father who is in the heavens.

Paraphrase:

Comments:

Another equative clause “Μακάριος…” (GGBB 310)

The article in ὁ πατήρ μου ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς is the equivalent of a relative pronoun.


Matt 16:18

κἀγὼ δέ σοι λέγω ὅτι σὺ εἶ Πέτρος, καὶ ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ οἰκοδομήσω μου τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, καὶ πύλαι ᾅδου οὐ κατισχύσουσιν αὐτῆς·

and I say to you that you are Peter and on this rock, I will build my ekklesia and the gates of Hades will not overcome her.

Paraphrase:

Comments:

A content οτι.

σὺ εἶ Πέτρος is another equative clause where the pronoun is clearly the subject (GGBB 43).

ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ is a prepositional phrase answering the where question.

ἐκκλησία is the term Jesus chose to replace the Hebrew word קהל.

In the term πύλαι ᾅδου, we see the great antithesis between the kingdom of Satan and the kingdom of God. πύλαι ᾅδου refers to the powers of death; Jesus preached eternal life.

Clarke’s paraphrase of this verse is:

By your constancy therefore in this good confession, you shall eminently be what your name signifies a rock: that is, you shall after my resurrection and ascension be a firm unshaken, and immoveable professor of the truth: You shall be the first preacher of my true religion to the gentile world; and so become as it were the first part that is laid of that foundation, upon which my church shall begin to be built; which shall afterwards, as a well-proportioned building, be continued and increased by the addition of sincere converts in their several degrees; and all the powers of death and hell shall never be able to utterly destroy it. source

For an exhaustive answer to the Roman Catholic exegesis of this verse, see Barrow.


Matt 16:19

δώσω σοι τὰς κλεῖδας τῆς βασιλείας τῶν οὐρανῶν, καὶ ὃ ἐὰν δήσῃς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἔσται δεδεμένον ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, καὶ ὃ ἐὰν λύσῃς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἔσται λελυμένον ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς.

I will give to him the keys of the kingdom of the heavens and whoever you might bind on the earth, he will be bound in the heavens and whoever you might loose on the earth, he will be loosed in the heavens.

Paraphrase:

Comments:


Matt 16:20

τότε διεστείλατο τοῖς μαθηταῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ εἴπωσιν ὅτι αὐτός ἐστιν ὁ χριστός.


Matt 16:21

Ἀπὸ τότε ἤρξατο ὁ Ἰησοῦς δεικνύειν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἀπελθεῖν καὶ πολλὰ παθεῖν ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ ἀρχιερέων καὶ γραμματέων καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι.

Matt 16:22

καὶ προσλαβόμενος αὐτὸν ὁ Πέτρος ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ λέγων· Ἵλεώς σοι, κύριε· οὐ μὴ ἔσται σοι τοῦτο.

Matt 16:23

ὁ δὲ στραφεὶς εἶπεν τῷ Πέτρῳ· Ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου, Σατανᾶ· σκάνδαλον εἶ ἐμοῦ, ὅτι οὐ φρονεῖς τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἀλλὰ τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων.

Matt 16:24

Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ· Εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἐλθεῖν, ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι.

Matt 16:25

ὃς γὰρ ἐὰν θέλῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ σῶσαι ἀπολέσει αὐτήν· ὃς δ’ ἂν ἀπολέσῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ εὑρήσει αὐτήν.

Matt 16:26

τί γὰρ ὠφεληθήσεται ἄνθρωπος ἐὰν τὸν κόσμον ὅλον κερδήσῃ τὴν δὲ ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ζημιωθῇ; ἢ τί δώσει ἄνθρωπος ἀντάλλαγμα τῆς ψυχῆς αὐτοῦ;

Matt 16:27

μέλλει γὰρ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεσθαι ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ, καὶ τότε ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὴν πρᾶξιν αὐτοῦ.

Matt 16:28

ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι εἰσίν τινες τῶν ὧδε ἑστώτων οἵτινες οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ.

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