Cardinal numbers show quantity; 1,2,3,4, etc. Ordinal numbers show order or rank; first, second, third, fourth, etc..
Hebrew:
Start your study of Hebrew numbers here.
- Cardinals can occur in either gender (called “gender both” below) and must agree with whatever noun they are modifying. They can occur in construct with another noun. Translate as “one of whatever noun” or “two of something” etc.
- Ordinals can occur in either gender and must agree with whatever noun they are modifying; They appear in the text as attributive adjectives (i.e. they follow the noun they modify and agree in gender, number, and definiteness)
There are no ordinals above ten; hence the cardinals must serve as ordinals, whenever the context demands. video
The number “one”.
Form |
Hebrew |
Gloss |
masculine singular absolute |
אֶחָד |
one |
masculine singular construct |
אַחַד |
one of |
feminine singular absolute |
אַחַת |
one |
feminine singular construct |
אַחַת |
one of |
The number “two”.
Form |
Hebrew |
Gloss |
masculine dual absolute |
שְׁנַיִם |
two |
masculine dual construct |
שְׁנֵי |
two of |
feminine dual absolute |
שְׁתַּיִם |
two |
feminine dual construct |
שְׁתֵּי |
two of |
This is an example of a cardinal number with a pronominal suffix.
שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם |
two of them or both of them |
Ordinals:
word |
Hebrew |
Gloss |
masculine |
רִאֹשׁוֹן |
first |
masculine |
שֵׁנִי |
second |
masculine |
שְׁלִישִׁי |
third |
masculine |
רְבִיעִי |
fourth |
masculine |
חֲמִישִׁי |
fifth |
masculine |
שִׁשִּׁי |
sixth |
masculine |
שְׁבִיעִי |
seventh |
masculine |
שְׁמִינִי |
eighth |
masculine |
תְּשִׁיעִי |
ninth |
masculine |
עֲשִׂירִי |
tenth |
These numbers have specialized uses when they take either a dual ending or a plural ending. When these numbers take a dual ending, they become simple multiples (“three-fold”, “four-fold”, “five-fold”, etc.); but when they take a plural ending, they become multiples of ten (“thirty”, “forty”, “fifty”, etc.).
Form |
Hebrew |
Gloss |
masculine singular absolute |
שָׁלֹשׁ |
three |
masculine singular construct |
שְׁלֹשׁ |
three of |
feminine singular absolute |
שְׁלֹשָׁה |
three |
feminine singular construct |
שְׁלֹשֶׁת |
three of |
masculine singular absolute |
אַרְבַּע |
four |
masculine singular construct |
אַרְבַּע |
four of |
feminine singular absolute |
אַרְבָּעָה |
four |
feminine singular construct |
אַרְבַּעַת |
four of |
masculine singular absolute |
חָמֵשׁ |
five |
masculine singular construct |
חֲמֵשׁ |
five of |
feminine singular absolute |
חֲמִשָּׁה |
five |
feminine singular construct |
חֲמֵשֶׁת |
five of |
masculine singular absolute |
שֵׁשׁ |
six |
masculine singular construct |
שֵׁשׁ |
six of |
feminine singular absolute |
שִׁשָּׁה |
six |
feminine singular construct |
שֵׁשֶׁת |
six of |
masculine singular absolute |
שֶׁבַע |
seven |
masculine singular construct |
שֶׁבַע |
seven of |
feminine singular absolute |
שִׁבְעָה |
seven |
feminine singular construct |
שִׁבְעַת |
seven of |
masculine singular absolute |
שְׁמֹנֶה |
eight |
masculine singular construct |
שְׁמֹנֶה |
eight of |
feminine singular absolute |
שְׁמֹנָה |
eight |
feminine singular construct |
שִׁמֹנַת |
eight of |
masculine singular absolute |
תֵּשַׁע |
nine |
masculine singular construct |
תֵּשַׁע |
nine of |
feminine singular absolute |
תִּשְׁעָה |
nine |
feminine singular construct |
תִּשְׁעַת |
nine of |
masculine singular absolute |
עֶשֶׂר |
ten |
masculine singular construct |
עֶשֶׂר |
ten of |
feminine singular absolute |
עֲשָׂרָה |
ten |
feminine singular construct |
עֲשֶׂרֶת |
ten of |
The numbers 11-19 are formed by writing the number 1-9 followed by the number 10. Thus, in Hebrew the number “eleven” is written as “one ten”; the number “seventeen” is written as “seven ten”, etc.
Form |
Hebrew |
Gloss |
masculine |
אַחַד עָשָׂר |
eleven |
feminine |
אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה |
eleven |
masculine |
שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר |
twelve |
feminine |
שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה |
twelve |
masculine |
שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר |
thirteen |
feminine |
שָׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה |
thirteen |
masculine |
אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר |
fourteen |
feminine |
אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה |
fourteen |
masculine |
חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר |
fifteen |
feminine |
חָמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה |
fifteen |
masculine |
שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר |
sixteen |
feminine |
שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה |
sixteen |
masculine |
שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר |
seventeen |
feminine |
שְׁבַע עֶשְׂרֵה |
seventeen |
masculine |
שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר |
eighteen |
feminine |
שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה |
eighteen |
masculine |
תִּשְׁעָה עָשָׂר |
nineteen |
feminine |
תְּשַׁע עֶשְׂרֵה |
nineteen |
Multiples of ten (20, 30, 40, etc.) For the category “gender both”, see here.
Form |
Hebrew |
Gloss |
gender both |
עֶשְׂרִים |
twenty |
gender both |
שְׁלֹשִׁים |
thirty |
gender both |
אַרְבָּעִים |
forty |
gender both |
חֲמִשִּׁים |
fifty |
gender both |
שִׁשִּׁים |
sixty |
gender both |
שִׁבְעִים |
seventy |
gender both |
שְׁמֹנִים |
eighty |
gender both |
תִּשְׁעִים |
ninety |
Multiples of ten plus units (21, 32, 43, etc.) These numbers are written following the same rules as the numbers 11-19. Thus, the number “twenty-one” is written as “one twenty”; the number “thirty-two” is written as “two thirty”; the number “forty-three” is written as “three forty”, etc.
שְׁתַּ֤יִם וְשִׁשִּׁים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה |
two and-sixty year |
sixty-two years |
וְאַחֲרֵ֤י הַשָּׁבֻעִים֙ שִׁשִּׁ֣ים וּשְׁנַ֔יִם |
And-after the-weeks sixty and-two |
After the sixty-two weeks |
Multiples of 100, 1000, 10000, etc. The nouns “hundred” (100) and “thousand” (1000) function the same as any other common noun with singular, dual, and plural forms. Although the number for “hundred” uses feminine endings and the number for “thousand” uses masculine endings, both numbers should be classified as “gender both” because the same form can be both grammatically-masculine and grammatically-feminine.
Form |
Hebrew |
Gloss |
gender both singular absolute |
מֵאָה |
hundred |
gender both singular construct |
מְאַת |
hundred of |
gender both dual absolute |
מָאתַיִם |
two hundred |
gender both plural absolute |
מֵאוֹת |
hundreds |
gender both plural construct |
מֵאוֹת |
hundreds of |
gender both singular absolute |
אֶלֶף |
thousand |
gender both singular construct |
אֶלֶף |
thousand of |
gender both dual absolute |
אַלְפַּיִם |
two thousand |
gender both plural absolute |
אֲלָפַיִם |
thousands |
gender both plural construct |
אַלְפֵי |
thousands of |