ordinal

Cardinal numbers show quantity; 1,2,3,4, etc.  Ordinal numbers show order or rank; first, second, third, fourth, etc..


Hebrew:

Start your study of Hebrew numbers here.

  • Cardinals can occur in either gender (called “gender both” below) and must agree with whatever noun they are modifying.  They can occur in construct with another noun.  Translate as “one of whatever noun” or “two of something” etc.
  • Ordinals can occur in either gender and must agree with whatever noun they are modifying; They appear in the text as attributive adjectives (i.e. they follow the noun they modify and agree in gender, number, and definiteness)

There are no ordinals above ten; hence the cardinals must serve as ordinals, whenever the context demands.  video


The number “one”.

Form

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine singular absolute

אֶחָד

one

masculine singular construct

אַחַד

one of

feminine singular absolute

אַחַת

one

feminine singular construct

אַחַת

one of


The number “two”. 

Form

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine dual absolute

שְׁנַיִם

two

masculine dual construct

שְׁנֵי

two of

feminine dual absolute

שְׁתַּיִם

two

feminine dual construct

שְׁתֵּי

two of


This is an example of a cardinal number with a pronominal suffix.

שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם

two of them or both of them


Ordinals:

word

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine

רִאֹשׁוֹן

first

masculine

שֵׁנִי

second

masculine

שְׁלִישִׁי

third

masculine

רְבִיעִי

fourth

masculine

חֲמִישִׁי

fifth

masculine

שִׁשִּׁי

sixth

masculine

שְׁבִיעִי

seventh

masculine

שְׁמִינִי

eighth

masculine

תְּשִׁיעִי

ninth

masculine

עֲשִׂירִי

tenth


These numbers have specialized uses when they take either a dual ending or a plural ending. When these numbers take a dual ending, they become simple multiples (“three-fold”, “four-fold”, “five-fold”, etc.); but when they take a plural ending, they become multiples of ten (“thirty”, “forty”, “fifty”, etc.).

Form

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine singular absolute

שָׁלֹשׁ

three

masculine singular construct

שְׁלֹשׁ

three of

feminine singular absolute

שְׁלֹשָׁה

three

feminine singular construct

שְׁלֹשֶׁת

three of

masculine singular absolute

אַרְבַּע

four

masculine singular construct

אַרְבַּע

four of

feminine singular absolute

אַרְבָּעָה

four

feminine singular construct

אַרְבַּעַת

four of

masculine singular absolute

חָמֵשׁ

five

masculine singular construct

חֲמֵשׁ

five of

feminine singular absolute

חֲמִשָּׁה

five

feminine singular construct

חֲמֵשֶׁת

five of

masculine singular absolute

שֵׁשׁ

six

masculine singular construct

שֵׁשׁ

six of

feminine singular absolute

שִׁשָּׁה

six

feminine singular construct

שֵׁשֶׁת

six of

masculine singular absolute

שֶׁבַע

seven

masculine singular construct

שֶׁבַע

seven of

feminine singular absolute

שִׁבְעָה

seven

feminine singular construct

שִׁבְעַת

seven of

masculine singular absolute

שְׁמֹנֶה

eight

masculine singular construct

שְׁמֹנֶה

eight of

feminine singular absolute

שְׁמֹנָה

eight

feminine singular construct

שִׁמֹנַת

eight of

masculine singular absolute

תֵּשַׁע

nine

masculine singular construct

תֵּשַׁע

nine of

feminine singular absolute

תִּשְׁעָה

nine

feminine singular construct

תִּשְׁעַת

nine of

masculine singular absolute

עֶשֶׂר

ten

masculine singular construct

עֶשֶׂר

ten of

feminine singular absolute

עֲשָׂרָה

ten

feminine singular construct

עֲשֶׂרֶת

ten of


The numbers 11-19 are formed by writing the number 1-9 followed by the number 10. Thus, in Hebrew the number “eleven” is written as “one ten”; the number “seventeen” is written as “seven ten”, etc.

Form

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine

אַחַד עָשָׂר

eleven

feminine

אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה

eleven

masculine

שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר

twelve

feminine

שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה

twelve

masculine

שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר

thirteen

feminine

שָׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה

thirteen

masculine

אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר

fourteen

feminine

אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה

fourteen

masculine

חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר

fifteen

feminine

חָמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה

fifteen

masculine

שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר

sixteen

feminine

שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה

sixteen

masculine

שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר

seventeen

feminine

שְׁבַע עֶשְׂרֵה

seventeen

masculine

שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר

eighteen

feminine

שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה

eighteen

masculine

תִּשְׁעָה עָשָׂר

nineteen

feminine

תְּשַׁע עֶשְׂרֵה

nineteen


Multiples of ten (20, 30, 40, etc.)  For the category “gender both”, see here.

Form

Hebrew

Gloss

gender both

עֶשְׂרִים

twenty

gender both

שְׁלֹשִׁים

thirty

gender both

אַרְבָּעִים

forty

gender both

חֲמִשִּׁים

fifty

gender both

שִׁשִּׁים

sixty

gender both

שִׁבְעִים

seventy

gender both

שְׁמֹנִים

eighty

gender both

תִּשְׁעִים

ninety


Multiples of ten plus units (21, 32, 43, etc.)  These numbers are written following the same rules as the numbers 11-19. Thus, the number “twenty-one” is written as “one twenty”; the number “thirty-two” is written as “two thirty”; the number “forty-three” is written as “three forty”, etc.

שְׁתַּ֤יִם וְשִׁשִּׁים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה

two and-sixty year

sixty-two years

וְאַחֲרֵ֤י הַשָּׁבֻעִים֙ שִׁשִּׁ֣ים וּשְׁנַ֔יִם

And-after the-weeks sixty and-two

After the sixty-two weeks


Multiples of 100, 1000, 10000, etc.  The nouns “hundred” (100) and “thousand” (1000) function the same as any other common noun with singular, dual, and plural forms. Although the number for “hundred” uses feminine endings and the number for “thousand” uses masculine endings, both numbers should be classified as “gender both” because the same form can be both grammatically-masculine and grammatically-feminine.

Form

Hebrew

Gloss

gender both singular absolute

מֵאָה

hundred

gender both singular construct

מְאַת

hundred of

gender both dual absolute

מָאתַיִם

two hundred

gender both plural absolute

מֵאוֹת

hundreds

gender both plural construct

מֵאוֹת

hundreds of

gender both singular absolute

אֶלֶף

thousand

gender both singular construct

אֶלֶף

thousand of

gender both dual absolute

אַלְפַּיִם

two thousand

gender both plural absolute

אֲלָפַיִם

thousands

gender both plural construct

אַלְפֵי

thousands of