Romans 8

Rom 8:1

Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ·

There is no condemnation, therefore, against those who are in Christ Jesus.

Paraphrase: In light of all this, we know what God’s verdict is against every Christian. A Guilty! verdict is what we expected and deserved. Anyone, however, who is united to Christ, has had a radical change of legal status. The verdict has changed. Now the verdict is Not Guilty! just as Jesus Himself was Not Guilty!

Comments:

κρίμα is the word for a judge’s verdict; κατακρίμα is a guilty verdict; see the entry for condemnation here.

For τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, see syntax principle 15.

 


Rom 8:2

ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου.

For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has liberated you from the law of sign and death.

Paraphrase: The reason for your change of legal status is this. In a word, you have been united to Jesus, and all the blessings that God promised Jesus are now given to you. One of these blessings is the Holy Spirit, Himself. God anointed Jesus with His Spirit (Acts 10:38), and now that same Spirit is given to you (Acts 10:44). This means that there is a new controlling force at work in your life. Before, you were under a law which demanded perfect, personal, and perpetual obedience. This was a cruel oppression; and had it continued, you surely would have died under it. Thanks be to God, you were joined to Christ and thus received the Holy Spirit. Now a completely new source of power has taken control of you; you have been set free from bondage and given a new and full life (John 10:10) such as you never had before.

Comments:

Here you see the word νομος used both as a kind of force and power in the life of a person and as a written code. The two meanings blend together here.

Note the genitives here, νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς. I would suggest that πνεύματος is a genitive of apposition, the law which is the Spirit… ζωῆς is a genitive of source.

 


Rom 8:3

τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, ἐν ᾧ ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν πέμψας ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας κατέκρινε τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί,

for the powerlessness of the law… by which it was weakened through the flesh; God, sending the Son Himself in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sins, condemned sin in the flesh.

Paraphrase: Now consider the law. Why can’t it bring us to that new legal status? God has told us what He expects from us (Ex 20) and now we just need to buckle down and do it. Why the need for Christ and His Spirit? Is there something deficient in God’s law (Rom 7:7)? Of course not. The problem isn’t with the law but with us. We have a sin nature which is constantly pushing us to violate the law’s good commands. Furthermore, we have already run up a record in God’s book which is as high as heaven itself, and that guilt must be atoned for. We can’t even begin talking about a right, legal status with God until this bad record is dealt with. The beauty of the gospel is that what the law could not do, God has done. He sent His own Son to this earth to deal with our bad record, and Jesus did this. First, he became a human person; second, He became a sin-offering (Lev 4). By submitting to the death on the cross, Jesus became like the sacrificial animal in the sin-offering. You might say that by becoming our Substitute, Jesus pronounced sin guilty and sent it away to a dark prison far away, and we never need to hear from it again. He stood in our place just as the animal in the sin-offering did. He took the beating that we deserved…

Comments:

I understand σαρκός here to be our sin nature.

Robertson says τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου is a nominative absolute. It has no grammatical connection to anything in the rest of the sentence.

The expression κατέκρινε τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί is difficult to understand. Hendriksen says, “Here the verb κατακρίνω clearly has the double meaning: to condemn and to punish; to sentence and to carry out that sentence. So also in 1 Cor. 11:32; 2 Peter 2:6.”

 


Rom 8:4

ἵνα τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου πληρωθῇ ἐν ἡμῖν τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα·

in order that the righteous requirements of the law might be realized in us, to those who are walking not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.

Paraphrase: …in order that our record (Col 2:14) might be perfectly clean. There is not a single charge that can be made against us. Our past sins are atone for, and God’s just demand for perfect, personal, and perpetual obedience (Gal 3:10) is also realized in us. This is the new reality. Once we are in Christ, we not only receive a full forgiveness of all our past guilt, but we also receive a perfect record of obedience. Jesus’ perfect obedience to the law is now reckoned us as if we had done it. It seems impossible to believe, but it really is true that our record is as perfect as Jesus’ record. Now it bears repeating that this new legal status belongs only to those whose life is under the control of the Spirit of God. The reason is simple. Those who are still under the control of their sin nature show by their behavior that they are not one with Christ; and if you are not united to Christ, then you are no recipient of His gifts.

Comments:

Abbot-Smith say about δικαίωμα, “a concrete expression of righteousness, the expression and result of the act of δικαίωσις.” source

The preposition κατὰ here (with an accusative object) has the meaning of standard or in accordance with.

τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα an articular participle and therefore adjectival. This one is attributive modifying ἡμῖν.

 


Rom 8:5

οἱ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ὄντες τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς φρονοῦσιν, οἱ δὲ κατὰ πνεῦμα τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος.

For those who are according to the flesh mind the things of the flesh, but those according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit.

Paraphrase: Let me say something more about this. There are two groups of people in this world. There are those who are under the happy control of the Holy Spirit. These folks find delight and satisfaction in the things of God. This is where they are the happiest. There are others, however, who grind out their lives in bondage to their own sinful desires. Their master is their own sin-nature. Recall what I said previously on this; some people are slaves to righteousness; others are slaves to sin (Rom 6:16).

Comments:

Lots of orphan articles here (see syntax principle 15).

 


Rom 8:6

τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος, τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη·

For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace.

Paraphrase: Consider the end result of both of these persons. When you let your mind be full of all kinds of sinful desires, the end is death. When your mind, however, is full of the things of the kingdom of God (Matt 6:33), then you enter into life, and not just a bare living. This is the abundant life which Jesus spoke about (Jn 10:10). Furthermore, it’s a life marked by the shalom or peace that our people are always seeking (Joel 2:19; Mic 4:4; Zech 3:10; 8:5).

Comments:

Abbott-Smith says that φρόνημα is the content of φρονεῖν (as in the previous verse). source

 


Rom 8:7

διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα εἰς θεόν, τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται, οὐδὲ γὰρ δύναται·

Wherefore the mind of the flesh is enmity against God; for to the law of God it is not subject, for neither is it able.

Paraphrase: You might wonder why the situation has to be so serious. The reason is this. The mind that is full of sinful desires is not just neutral toward God. Such a mind is not just agnostic as many claim. On the contrary, anyone with such a mind hates God and is His enemy. Such a person does not approach God with an attitude of submission and respect but with hostility. Indeed, these persons do not even have it within themselves to change their attitude. Many of them do not even realize that they are completely helpless and paralyzed in this respect. Already, God punishes them with spiritual death and finally with eternal death. This is why I say that the end of those whose minds are full of sinful desires is death.

Comments:

The fact is stated in v6, the end of carnal persons is death. The reason is given διότι in this verse.

 


Rom 8:8

οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται.

Those who are in the flesh, are not able to please God.

Paraphrase: So we have come to this. Those who are not one with Christ may very well do things that the public regards as moral and even praiseworthy. The simple truth is this, however. Nothing they do is motivated by glory for God; and therefore, nothing they do in any way pleases God.

Comments:

ἀρέσαι is a complementary infinitive.

 


Rom 8:9

Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ἀλλὰ ἐν πνεύματι, εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν. εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει, οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ.

Rom 8:10

εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην.

Rom 8:11

εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας ἐκ νεκρῶν Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ζῳοποιήσει καὶ τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ τὸ ἐνοικοῦν αὐτοῦ πνεῦμα ἐν ὑμῖν.

Rom 8:12

Ἄρα οὖν, ἀδελφοί, ὀφειλέται ἐσμέν, οὐ τῇ σαρκὶ τοῦ κατὰ σάρκα ζῆν,

Rom 8:13

εἰ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ζῆτε μέλλετε ἀποθνῄσκειν, εἰ δὲ πνεύματι τὰς πράξεις τοῦ σώματος θανατοῦτε, ζήσεσθε.

Rom 8:14

ὅσοι γὰρ πνεύματι θεοῦ ἄγονται, οὗτοι υἱοί εἰσιν θεοῦ.

Rom 8:15

οὐ γὰρ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα δουλείας πάλιν εἰς φόβον, ἀλλὰ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας ἐν ᾧ κράζομεν· Αββα ὁ πατήρ·

Rom 8:16 αὐτὸ τὸ πνεῦμα συμμαρτυρεῖ τῷ πνεύματι ἡμῶν ὅτι ἐσμὲν τέκνα θεοῦ.

Rom 8:17

εἰ δὲ τέκνα, καὶ κληρονόμοι· κληρονόμοι μὲν θεοῦ, συγκληρονόμοι δὲ Χριστοῦ, εἴπερ συμπάσχομεν ἵνα καὶ συνδοξασθῶμεν.

Rom 8:18

Λογίζομαι γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ ἄξια τὰ παθήματα τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ πρὸς τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς.

Rom 8:19

ἡ γὰρ ἀποκαραδοκία τῆς κτίσεως τὴν ἀποκάλυψιν τῶν υἱῶν τοῦ θεοῦ ἀπεκδέχεται·

Rom 8:20

τῇ γὰρ ματαιότητι ἡ κτίσις ὑπετάγη, οὐχ ἑκοῦσα ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα, ἐφ’ ἑλπίδι

Rom 8:21

ὅτι καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ κτίσις ἐλευθερωθήσεται ἀπὸ τῆς δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς εἰς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης τῶν τέκνων τοῦ θεοῦ.

Rom 8:22

οἴδαμεν γὰρ ὅτι πᾶσα ἡ κτίσις συστενάζει καὶ συνωδίνει ἄχρι τοῦ νῦν·

Rom 8:23

οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοὶ τὴν ἀπαρχὴν τοῦ πνεύματος ἔχοντες ἡμεῖς καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς στενάζομεν, υἱοθεσίαν ἀπεκδεχόμενοι τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν τοῦ σώματος ἡμῶν.

Rom 8:24

τῇ γὰρ ἐλπίδι ἐσώθημεν· ἐλπὶς δὲ βλεπομένη οὐκ ἔστιν ἐλπίς, ὃ γὰρ βλέπει τίς ἐλπίζει;

Rom 8:25

εἰ δὲ ὃ οὐ βλέπομεν ἐλπίζομεν, δι’ ὑπομονῆς ἀπεκδεχόμεθα.

Rom 8:26

Ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα συναντιλαμβάνεται τῇ ἀσθενείᾳ ἡμῶν· τὸ γὰρ τί προσευξώμεθα καθὸ δεῖ οὐκ οἴδαμεν, ἀλλὰ αὐτὸ τὸ πνεῦμα ὑπερεντυγχάνει στεναγμοῖς ἀλαλήτοις,

Rom 8:27

ὁ δὲ ἐραυνῶν τὰς καρδίας οἶδεν τί τὸ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος, ὅτι κατὰ θεὸν ἐντυγχάνει ὑπὲρ ἁγίων.

Rom 8:28

Οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγαπῶσι τὸν θεὸν πάντα συνεργεῖ εἰς ἀγαθόν, τοῖς κατὰ πρόθεσιν κλητοῖς οὖσιν.

Rom 8:29

ὅτι οὓς προέγνω, καὶ προώρισεν συμμόρφους τῆς εἰκόνος τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν πρωτότοκον ἐν πολλοῖς ἀδελφοῖς·

Rom 8:30

οὓς δὲ προώρισεν, τούτους καὶ ἐκάλεσεν· καὶ οὓς ἐκάλεσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδικαίωσεν· οὓς δὲ ἐδικαίωσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδόξασεν.

Rom 8:31 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν πρὸς ταῦτα; εἰ ὁ θεὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, τίς καθ’ ἡμῶν;

Rom 8:32

ὅς γε τοῦ ἰδίου υἱοῦ οὐκ ἐφείσατο, ἀλλὰ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν πάντων παρέδωκεν αὐτόν, πῶς οὐχὶ καὶ σὺν αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα ἡμῖν χαρίσεται;

Rom 8:33

τίς ἐγκαλέσει κατὰ ἐκλεκτῶν θεοῦ; θεὸς ὁ δικαιῶν·

Rom 8:34

τίς ὁ κατακρινῶν; Χριστὸς ὁ ἀποθανών, μᾶλλον δὲ ἐγερθείς, ὅς καί ἐστιν ἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ θεοῦ, ὃς καὶ ἐντυγχάνει ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν·

Rom 8:35

τίς ἡμᾶς χωρίσει ἀπὸ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ Χριστοῦ; θλῖψις ἢ στενοχωρία ἢ διωγμὸς ἢ λιμὸς ἢ γυμνότης ἢ κίνδυνος ἢ μάχαιρα;

Rom 8:36

καθὼς γέγραπται ὅτι Ἕνεκεν σοῦ θανατούμεθα ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν, ἐλογίσθημεν ὡς πρόβατα σφαγῆς.

Rom 8:37

ἀλλ’ ἐν τούτοις πᾶσιν ὑπερνικῶμεν διὰ τοῦ ἀγαπήσαντος ἡμᾶς.

Rom 8:38

πέπεισμαι γὰρ ὅτι οὔτε θάνατος οὔτε ζωὴ οὔτε ἄγγελοι οὔτε ἀρχαὶ οὔτε ἐνεστῶτα οὔτε μέλλοντα οὔτε δυνάμεις

Rom 8:39

οὔτε ὕψωμα οὔτε βάθος οὔτε τις κτίσις ἑτέρα δυνήσεται ἡμᾶς χωρίσαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν.