1 Corinthians 10

1 Corinthians 10:1

Οὐ θέλω γὰρ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν πάντες ὑπὸ τὴν νεφέλην ἦσαν καὶ πάντες διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης διῆλθον,

 


1 Corinthians 10:2

καὶ πάντες εἰς τὸν Μωϋσῆν ἐβαπτίσαντο ἐν τῇ νεφέλῃ καὶ ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ,

 


1 Corinthians 10:3

καὶ πάντες τὸ αὐτὸ πνευματικὸν βρῶμα ἔφαγον

 


1 Corinthians 10:4

καὶ πάντες τὸ αὐτὸ πνευματικὸν ἔπιον πόμα, ἔπινον γὰρ ἐκ πνευματικῆς ἀκολουθούσης πέτρας, ἡ πέτρα δὲ ἦν ὁ Χριστός·

 


1 Corinthians 10:5

ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἐν τοῖς πλείοσιν αὐτῶν ηὐδόκησεν ὁ θεός, κατεστρώθησαν γὰρ ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ.

 


1 Corinthians 10:6

Ταῦτα δὲ τύποι ἡμῶν ἐγενήθησαν, εἰς τὸ μὴ εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἐπιθυμητὰς κακῶν, καθὼς κἀκεῖνοι ἐπεθύμησαν.

Now these things are examples for us in order that we might not be those who desire evil things even as those desired.

Paraphrase:  Now I ask you, brothers and sisters, to take a close look at the history of our people.  What happened to them is recorded for us in the Scripture and for a very good reason.  That reason is so that we might learn from their example.  We must learn the lessons that history places before us.  Now the lesson here is clear; we should not covet those evil things which our fathers coveted throughout their history.

Comments:

For the infinitive here, see BBG 32.15.

 


1 Corinthians 10:7

μηδὲ εἰδωλολάτραι γίνεσθε, καθώς τινες αὐτῶν· ὥσπερ γέγραπται· Ἐκάθισεν ὁ λαὸς φαγεῖν καὶ πεῖν, καὶ ἀνέστησαν παίζειν.

Neither be idolaters even as some of them, just as it is written, “The people sat to eat and to drink and they rose up to play.”

Paraphrase:  Again and again, we read of how they looked longingly at the deities of the foreign nations and desired to worship and serve them.  Let’s face it; the majority of our people were addicted to idolatry. (Hosea 4:17)  Who can read without astonishment what happened in Exodus 32?  How just a short time after the ratification of the covenant (Exodus 24) where all Israel made a solemn vow to serve YHWH only, they constructed and began to worship a golden calf.  The Scripture says, “The Israelites first had a covenant ratification meal to their new idol and then rose up to dance to it.” (Exodus 32:6)  How is it possible?

Comments:

Morris calls this a a “typical idol festival.” see his comment on this verse.

 


1 Corinthians 10:8

μηδὲ πορνεύωμεν, καθώς τινες αὐτῶν ἐπόρνευσαν, καὶ ἔπεσαν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ εἴκοσι τρεῖς χιλιάδες.

Neither let us fornicate even as some of them fornicated and fell in one day, twenty-three thousand.

Paraphrase:  Such idol worship inevitably leads to sexual immorality of the worst kind.  We all know very well the number of those who were struck dead by God’s judgments on this occasion.  23,000 people died as God’s testimony to us of what He thinks of idolatry and the immorality which always flows from it. (Numbers 25:9)  Let us be on our guard against such wickedness.

Comments:

See Jowett on the immorality of the heathen world.

On this apparent contradiction see Keil (p206).  Geisler writes:

There are two possible explanations here. First, some have suggested that the difference is due to the fact that 1 Corinthians 10:8 is speaking only about those who died “in one day” (23,000), whereas Numbers 25:9 is referring to the complete number (24,000) that died in the plague.  Others believe two different events are in view here. They note that 1 Corinthians 10:7 is a quote of Exodus 32:6 and indicates that the 1 Corinthians passage is actually referring to the judgment of God after the idolatrous worship of the golden calf (Ex. 32). The Exodus passage does not state the number of people that died as a result of the judgment of God, and the actual number is not revealed until 1 Corinthians 10:8. According to 1 Corinthians 10:8, 23,000 died as a result of the judgment of God for their worship of the golden calf. According to Numbers 25:9, 24,000 died as a result of the judgment of God for Israel’s worship of Baal at Baal-Peor.  When Critics Ask, p110.

 


1 Corinthians 10:9

μηδὲ ἐκπειράζωμεν τὸν Χριστόν, καθώς τινες αὐτῶν ἐπείρασαν, καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ὄφεων ἀπώλλυντο.

neither let us test Christ even as some of them tested and by snakes perished.

Paraphrase:  Neither should we put our Savior to the test like our fathers did when they complained to Moses about the hardships of the wilderness journey. (Numbers 21:5)  Recall what punishment God brought on them with the fiery serpents. (Numbers 21:6)

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:10

μηδὲ γογγύζετε, καθάπερ τινὲς αὐτῶν ἐγόγγυσαν, καὶ ἀπώλοντο ὑπὸ τοῦ ὀλοθρευτοῦ.

neither grumble even as some of them grumbled and perished by the destroyer.

Paraphrase:  Neither should we complain about our present situation.  Again, just look to the history of our people and see how many of them were destroyed by the destroying angel after they complained to God.

Comments:

It’s unclear what historical event is being referred to here.

 


1 Corinthians 10:11

ταῦτα δὲ τυπικῶς συνέβαινεν ἐκείνοις, ἐγράφη δὲ πρὸς νουθεσίαν ἡμῶν, εἰς οὓς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων κατήντηκεν.

Now these things happened to them as examples and are written for our counsel on whom the end of the ages has arrived.

Paraphrase:  Now all these events, which took place in the history of our people, happened for our instruction.  Yes, the old dispensation has come to an end; the last dispensation has arrived.  For all that, however, we should not lose the wisdom which comes to us from this old dispensation.

Comments:

Lothian (p207):  The Apostle calls the Gospel dispensation the ends of the ages, as being not only the last revelation of the will of God, which shall continue till the consummation of all things, but as that to which all the previous dispensations were subservient and preparatory, and in which they had their accomplishment. These miraculous judgments were intended as types to all future generations, and are set up as beacons to warn the professing people of God, against those fatal errors on which so many have suffered shipwreck.

 


1 Corinthians 10:12

ὥστε ὁ δοκῶν ἑστάναι βλεπέτω μὴ πέσῃ,

So that the one thinking to stand, let him watch not to fall.

Paraphrase:  Perhaps the simplest way to put it is this.  Whoever thinks that they are not subject to the temptations and failings which we are so commonplace in the history of our people, let that very person watch carefully.  Such a self-confident and presumptuous attitude is a good sign that he is in danger of falling.

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:13

πειρασμὸς ὑμᾶς οὐκ εἴληφεν εἰ μὴ ἀνθρώπινος· πιστὸς δὲ ὁ θεός, ὃς οὐκ ἐάσει ὑμᾶς πειρασθῆναι ὑπὲρ ὃ δύνασθε, ἀλλὰ ποιήσει σὺν τῷ πειρασμῷ καὶ τὴν ἔκβασιν τοῦ δύνασθαι ὑπενεγκεῖν.

A trial has not taken you except human.  God is faithful who does not permit you to be tried beyond what you are able, but He will make with the trial even an exit to be able to endure.

Paraphrase:  Now don’t be discouraged by this.  Yes, it’s true that anyone with a presumptuous, self-confident attitude is in danger of falling.  For all that, however, you must know that none of you has a trial that is unique to you.  All God’s people suffer trials in this life (John 16:33); your experience is not unusual in this respect.  The comforting truth is that God does not ever allow anything to happen to His children which they are not able to endure.  God knows exactly what we can take and what we can’t; that’s why we call Him our Father.  Every trial that comes on us, also comes with a way out.  You can depend on it; God will always show us the way to stand even when the storms of life appear insurmountable, and we are ready to despair of ever rising above it. 

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:14

Διόπερ, ἀγαπητοί μου, φεύγετε ἀπὸ τῆς εἰδωλολατρίας.

Wherefore, my beloved, flee away from idolatry.

Paraphrase:  So with this comforting truth in our minds, dear friends, let’s take a stand against idolatry and get as far away from it as we can.

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:15

ὡς φρονίμοις λέγω· κρίνατε ὑμεῖς ὅ φημι.

I speak as intelligent; you judge what I say.

Paraphrase:  I appeal to you as mature people who are able to think carefully about these issues and who won’t jump to embrace every new fad which arises in our culture.  Think hard with me about this.  

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:16

τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας ὃ εὐλογοῦμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία ἐστὶν τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ; τὸν ἄρτον ὃν κλῶμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία τοῦ σώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐστιν;

The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a fellowship of the blood of Christ?  the bread which we break, is it not a fellowship of the body of Christ?

Paraphrase:  As Christians, we celebrate the Lord’s Supper at our worship services.  We take a cup of wine; we ask God to bless it; then we all drink from it.  We take bread, break it, and all of us eat it.  Now what is the higher meaning behind this simple meal?  Do we do this to satisfy our hunger?  Of course, not; this is a meal which ratifies the covenant between God and us.  This is the same covenant which Jesus Himself established by the shedding of His own blood. (Luke 22:20)  By eating the bread and drinking from the cup, we publicly testify that we consent to God’s covenant and that we gladly welcome and treasure the union which it represents to us.

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:17

ὅτι εἷς ἄρτος, ἓν σῶμα οἱ πολλοί ἐσμεν, οἱ γὰρ πάντες ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἄρτου μετέχομεν.

because the many are one bread and one body; for all of one bread partake.

Paraphrase:  Now don’t miss the point here.  There are many believers, and they differ in many ways, but they all drink from one cup and eat from one loaf.  This points to the fact that whatever differences may exist between us in society, we all stand on the same ground when we gather to celebrate the Lord’s Supper.  We all take our place before God as lost sinners who are trusting in the one sacrifice of Jesus for the forgiveness of our sins.

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:18

βλέπετε τὸν Ἰσραὴλ κατὰ σάρκα· οὐχ οἱ ἐσθίοντες τὰς θυσίας κοινωνοὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου εἰσίν;

See Israel according to the flesh.  Are not those eating the sacrifices in fellowship of the altar?

Paraphrase:  Not only does the Lord’s Supper represent our happy union together as God’s people horizontally, but there is also a vertical union between God and His people.  This was clear in the old covenant sacrifices as well.  Think about what the Israelite people did; they brought their peace offerings to the tabernacle and later to the temple.  Part of the animal was given to God by placing it on the altar (Leviticus 3:5); the rest of it was eaten by the offeror. (Leviticus 7:15)  Now what was the meaning of this meal?  Was it to satisfy hunger?  Surely not.  This meal was a joyful union between God and His people.  You might say, the Israelites became one with the altar which, of course, means they were joined in a saving union with the God who is symbolized by that altar.  What does all this have to do with idolatry?  Because some of you are participating in the worship services of non-Christian people.  Do you see the problem?  When we worship God, we rejoice in the union that we have with Him.  What happens when you participate in a pagan worship service?  the same thing!  You rejoice in the union you have with whatever idol is being worshipped.

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:19

τί οὖν φημι; ὅτι εἰδωλόθυτόν τί ἐστιν, ἢ ὅτι εἴδωλόν τί ἐστιν;

Therefore, what am I saying?  that something is idolatry? or that something is an idol?

Paraphrase:  Wait a minute, you might say, I thought you said previously that idols don’t really exist. (1 Corinthians 8:4)  Are you now saying that there really is a such a thing as another deity who we unite with when we participate in pagan worship services?  No, of course, not.

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:20

ἀλλ’ ὅτι ἃ θύουσιν, δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ θεῷ θύουσιν, οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς κοινωνοὺς τῶν δαιμονίων γίνεσθαι.

but that what they sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons and not to God, and I do not wish you to be in fellowship with demons.

Paraphrase:  There is only one God, but do bear in mind that the sacrifices performed at pagan services are performed to devils.  That’s why Satan delights in these pagan worship services.  So what do you think?  Should Christians be in fellowship with the devils and the whole kingdom of darkness?  I earnestly desire, brothers and sisters, that you would think carefully about this and never be present at such services again.  It breaks my heart to think that you would even think of taking sides with the seed of the serpent. (Genesis 3:15)

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:21

οὐ δύνασθε ποτήριον κυρίου πίνειν καὶ ποτήριον δαιμονίων· οὐ δύνασθε τραπέζης κυρίου μετέχειν καὶ τραπέζης δαιμονίων.

You are not able the cup of the Lord to drink and the cup of demons.  You are not able to partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons.

Paraphrase:  Think of the awful contradiction that exists when Christians celebrate the Lord’s Supper with the church and then go and participate at pagan worship services.  How can you drink from the cup which Jesus gives and also the cup which the demons give?  How can you sit at the table Jesus spreads for you and then go and enjoy a meal with devils?  Is not the Lord’s Supper a symbol of our saving union with Christ and is not our sitting at that table and partaking of the bread and wine a symbol of our hearty acceptance of God’s covenant? (Exodus 24:7-8, 11)  How can we take God’s covenant in one hand while we are embracing the devil with the other?  What kind of union can exist between righteousness and unrighteousness or between light and darkness? (2 Corinthians 6:14)  What kind of fellowship can there be between the seed of the serpent and the seed of the woman? (Genesis 3:15)  No, my dear people, this can never be.  Friendship with the world means you are at enmity with God; there is no middle ground.  Remember what our Lord taught us when He said, “No one can serve two masters.” (Matthew 6:24)

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:22

ἢ παραζηλοῦμεν τὸν κύριον; μὴ ἰσχυρότεροι αὐτοῦ ἐσμεν;

or do we provoke the Lord? Are we stronger than He?

Paraphrase:  We know from our history what God thinks of idolatry.  Every time we recite the ten commands, we confess that our God is a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children and on the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Him. (Exodus 20:5)  We confess that the Name of our God is Jealous (Exodus 34:14); He will not tolerate any rival.  In light of this, should you continue to participate in pagan worship?  Is it a path that is likely to bring happiness in your life when you are knowingly provoking God to anger and jealousy?  Do you think you are able to stand before the heat of His anger? (Revelation 6:17)

Comments:

 


1 Corinthians 10:23

Πάντα ἔξεστιν· ἀλλ’ οὐ πάντα συμφέρει. πάντα ἔξεστιν· ἀλλ’ οὐ πάντα οἰκοδομεῖ.

 


1 Corinthians 10:24

μηδεὶς τὸ ἑαυτοῦ ζητείτω ἀλλὰ τὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου.

 

1 Corinthians 10:25

πᾶν τὸ ἐν μακέλλῳ πωλούμενον ἐσθίετε μηδὲν ἀνακρίνοντες διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν,

 

1 Corinthians 10:26

τοῦ κυρίου γὰρ ἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς.

 

1 Corinthians 10:27

εἴ τις καλεῖ ὑμᾶς τῶν ἀπίστων καὶ θέλετε πορεύεσθαι, πᾶν τὸ παρατιθέμενον ὑμῖν ἐσθίετε μηδὲν ἀνακρίνοντες διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν·

 

1 Corinthians 10:28

ἐὰν δέ τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ· Τοῦτο ἱερόθυτόν ἐστιν, μὴ ἐσθίετε δι’ ἐκεῖνον τὸν μηνύσαντα καὶ τὴν συνείδησιν·

 

1 Corinthians 10:29

συνείδησιν δὲ λέγω οὐχὶ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀλλὰ τὴν τοῦ ἑτέρου· ἱνατί γὰρ ἡ ἐλευθερία μου κρίνεται ὑπὸ ἄλλης συνειδήσεως;

 

1 Corinthians 10:30

εἰ ἐγὼ χάριτι μετέχω, τί βλασφημοῦμαι ὑπὲρ οὗ ἐγὼ εὐχαριστῶ;

 

1 Corinthians 10:31

Εἴτε οὖν ἐσθίετε εἴτε πίνετε εἴτε τι ποιεῖτε, πάντα εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ ποιεῖτε.

 

1 Corinthians 10:32

ἀπρόσκοποι καὶ Ἰουδαίοις γίνεσθε καὶ Ἕλλησιν καὶ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ,

 

1 Corinthians 10:33

καθὼς κἀγὼ πάντα πᾶσιν ἀρέσκω, μὴ ζητῶν τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ σύμφορον ἀλλὰ τὸ τῶν πολλῶν, ἵνα σωθῶσιν.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top