infinitive

An infinitive is a verbal which in English always begins with the preposition “to”.   video  An Infinitive with all its modifiers is an infinitive phrase.  Infinitives can function adjectivally, adverbially, or substantively.


Greek:

An infinitive in Greek can be adverbial, adjectival, or substantival.  Study BBG chapter 32 or this video.  The infinitive is identified by its own unique set of endings:

λυω

present

First aorist

Second aorist

Perfect

Active

λυειν

λυσαι

λαβειν

λελυκεναι

Middle

λυεσθαι

λυσασθαι

λαβεσθαι

λελυσθαι

Passive

λυεσθαι

λυθηναι

γραφηναι

λελυσθαι

 

Articular infinitives are often paired with prepositions to show purpose, time, or result (BBG 32.15).

  1. An articular infinitive with εἰς or πρός shows purpose.
  2. An articular infinitive with ὥστε shows result.
  3. An articular infinitive with πρό, ἐν, or μετά shows time.
  4. An articular infinitive with διά shows cause.

Hebrew:

In Hebrew, an infinitive construct is by far the more common of the two kinds of infinitive (infinitive absolutes never have a prefix). Infinitive constructs can be used as adverbs and as substantives.  Start here.

For the uses and meaning of the infinitive construct, study this (jump to page 13).

An infinitive absolute is the less common of the two.   more or video  Infinitive absolutes will never have a prefix (an infinitive with a prefix is an infinitive construct).

       

Paradigm:  The infinitive construct is not found in the Hofal or Pual stems in Biblical Hebrew.

Parsing

Hebrew

Gloss

Qal

קְטֹל

kill

Nifal

הִקָּטֵל

be killed

Hifil

הַקְטִיל

cause to kill

Piel

קַטֵּל

slaughter

Hitpael

הִתְקַטֵּל

kill oneself


Paradigm of Infinitive Absolute

Parsing

Hebrew

Gloss

Qal

קָטוֹל

kill

Nifal

הִקָּטֹל / נִקְטֹל

be killed

Hifil

הַקְטֵל

cause to kill

Hofal

הָקְטֵל

causing to be killed

Piel

קַטֵּל / קַטֹּל

slaughter

Pual

קֻטֹּל

be slaughtered

Hitpael

הִתְקַטֵּל

kill oneself