Now there were prophets and teachers in Antioch, according to the church being there; who were Barnabas and Simeon, who was called Niger and Lucius, the Cyrene, Manaen, a close friend of Herod, the Tetrarch and Saul.
Paraphrase: Now at this time, the church in Jerusalem came to have less and less influence in the Christian church, and the church in Antioch rose to become the center of operations. The leadership of the church in Antioch was made up of several men who had received the gift of both prophecy and teaching. Barnabas was well known by this time. Less well known were men like Simeon who was often called Niger. Lucius was a man from Cyrene. Manaen was also a leader in the church which is remarkable since he had been raised in Herod’s family and was a close friend of Herod.
RWP says that the double use of τε here makes three prophets (Barnabas, Symeon, Lucius) and two teachers (Manaen and Saul). Others say that the distinction between the two was not so sharp. Paul certainly acts the part of a prophet later in this chapter when he confronts the false-prophet.
λειτουργούντων δὲ αὐτῶν τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ νηστευόντων εἶπεν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον· Ἀφορίσατε δή μοι τὸν Βαρναβᾶν καὶ Σαῦλον εἰς τὸ ἔργον ὃ προσκέκλημαι αὐτούς.
While they were serving the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Separate now to Me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.
Paraphrase: These men faithfully labored day by day in the church and for the church with much prayer and fasting. One day as they were engaged in their ministry, the Holy Spirit spoke very directly to them. “Take Barnabas and Saul out of the ministry work that they are doing here in Antioch and prepare them to undertake a new endeavor. When I first called Saul out of his blindness and folly, I chose him to be My instrument to bring the gospel to the Gentiles. (Acts 9:15) Now, it is time for him to laid aside his ministry work here in Antioch and to begin the task of shining the gospel light in Gentile lands.
τότε νηστεύσαντες καὶ προσευξάμενοι καὶ ἐπιθέντες τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῖς ἀπέλυσαν.
Then, while fasting and praying and laying hands on them, they departed.
Paraphrase: With great excitement and some anxiety, the church gathered to send Barnabas and Saul off. The believers fasted and prayed earnestly that God would watch over these men, bless their efforts, and bring them back in safety. The leaders of the church then laid hands on them, gave their last good-byes, and sent them on their way. And so began Paul’s first mission journey.
Does 1 Timothy 4:14 refer to this event? If so, then it appears that the prophets here also gave out some prophecies respecting either this mission or perhaps to all of Paul’s ministry.
Αὐτοὶ μὲν οὖν ἐκπεμφθέντες ὑπὸ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος κατῆλθον εἰς Σελεύκειαν, ἐκεῖθέν τε ἀπέπλευσαν εἰς Κύπρον,
Then being sent out by the Holy Spirit, they departed into Seleucia; from there, they set said for Cyprus.
Paraphrase: With the understanding that it was the Spirit of God who had called and sent them on this mission, they set out confidently for the sea. The same Spirit who had called them also directed them on their journey, and the two men obediently followed His leading. (Galatians 5:25) After a journey of sixteen miles, they reached the port city of Seleucia where they booked passage on a ship going to the island of Cyprus.
καὶ γενόμενοι ἐν Σαλαμῖνι κατήγγελλον τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς τῶν Ἰουδαίων· εἶχον δὲ καὶ Ἰωάννην ὑπηρέτην.
Then arriving in Salamis, they were proclaiming the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews. Now they had also John, an assistant.
Paraphrase: After 130 miles of sailing, they finally reached the city of Salamis on the east side of Cyprus. Barnabas was especially glad to be in his home country again. They wasted no time, however in securing a hearing for themselves in the various synagogues of this city where they preached the gospel at every opportunity. One additional matter which I didn’t mention previously; with them on this misson was the man named John who I had mentioned previously. (Acts 12:12) He was an assistant to Paul and Barnabas in all their work.
διελθόντες δὲ ὅλην τὴν νῆσον ἄχρι Πάφου εὗρον ἄνδρα τινὰ μάγον ψευδοπροφήτην Ἰουδαῖον ᾧ ὄνομα Βαριησοῦ,
Then passing through the whole island until Pafos, they found a man, a certain magician, a false-prophet, a Jew whose name was Barjesus,
Paraphrase: After some time, they left Salamis and traversed the entire length of the island from east to west (a 115 mile journey), stopping as they had opportunity to preach and testify to the gospel of Jesus. When they reached the city of Pafos, however, they met a man who challenged them. His name was Barjesus. He was a Jewish magician who Barnabas and Saul quickly recognized to be a false-prophet.
Pliny believed that the Jews were especially good at magic.
ὃς ἦν σὺν τῷ ἀνθυπάτῳ Σεργίῳ Παύλῳ, ἀνδρὶ συνετῷ. οὗτος προσκαλεσάμενος Βαρναβᾶν καὶ Σαῦλον ἐπεζήτησεν ἀκοῦσαι τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ·
who was with the Proconsul, Sergius Paulus, a wise man. This man, summoning Barnabas and Saul, asked to hear the word of God.
Paraphrase: This man was the court magician for the man who was, at that time, the Proconsul. The Proconsul’s name was Sergius Paulus, and he had an inquiring mind. When he got word of Barnabas and Saul’s preaching, he summoned them to his house so that he could gain a better understanding of their theology.
See here for proconsul. Neander writes:
In Paphos, they found in the Proconsul Sergius Paulus, a man dissatisfied with all that philosophy and the popular religion could offer for his religious wants, and anxious to receive every thing which presented itself as a new communication from heaven; hence, he was eager to hear what Paul and Barnabas announced as a new divine doctrine. source
ἀνθίστατο δὲ αὐτοῖς Ἐλύμας ὁ μάγος, οὕτως γὰρ μεθερμηνεύεται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, ζητῶν διαστρέψαι τὸν ἀνθύπατον ἀπὸ τῆς πίστεως.
But Elymas, a magician, resisted them, for in this manner his name is translated, seeking to turn the Proconsul from the faith.
Paraphrase: Now as Saul and Barnabas were explaining the truths of the Christian faith to the Proconsul, Elymas stepped in and interrupted them. He was not pleased with this new theology and took immediate action to prevent the Proconsul from hearing anything further about it.
πίστεως here is fides quae creditur or the truths that are believed, not referring to the act the faith. cf TDNT Same as διδαχῇ in v12.
Σαῦλος δέ, ὁ καὶ Παῦλος, πλησθεὶς πνεύματος ἁγίου ἀτενίσας εἰς αὐτὸν
But Saul, who even Paul, being filled with the Holy Spirit, glaring at him
Paraphrase: When Saul realized what Elymas was trying to do, he was filled with righteous indignation. The Spirit of God came upon him with power, and Saul fixed his eyes on Elymas. Parenthetically, let me just say at this point that Saul has always been called by his Roman name which was Paul instead of his Hebrew name, Saul. I will use “Paul” from here on.
For the name, see Lightfoot.
εἶπεν· Ὦ πλήρης παντὸς δόλου καὶ πάσης ῥᾳδιουργίας, υἱὲ διαβόλου, ἐχθρὲ πάσης δικαιοσύνης, οὐ παύσῃ διαστρέφων τὰς ὁδοὺς κυρίου τὰς εὐθείας;
He said, “Oh full of all deceit and all laziness, son of the devil, enemy of all righteousness, will you not stop twisting the straight ways of the Lord?
Paraphrase: At any rate, Saul was so enraged at Elymas that he confronted him directly. “Why you are nothing more than a lazy sophist full of lies and of every kind of deceit!” he shouted. “You are a son of your father, the devil! You are a Jew (Acts 13:6) and yet an enemy of all real righteousness. Will you never stop perverting the truths which God has revealed to us in His infallible word?
See here for the expression “son of the devil.”
καὶ νῦν ἰδοὺ χεὶρ κυρίου ἐπὶ σέ, καὶ ἔσῃ τυφλὸς μὴ βλέπων τὸν ἥλιον ἄχρι καιροῦ. παραχρῆμα δὲ ἔπεσεν ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἀχλὺς καὶ σκότος, καὶ περιάγων ἐζήτει χειραγωγούς.
and now, behold, the hand of the Lord [is] on you and you will be blind, not seeing the sun until the appointed time. Then instantly, there fell on him a mist and darkness, and he began seeking a guide to lead him by the hand.
Paraphrase: Look, your punishment has arrived. God’s hand of judgment is now striking you blind, and you will not see the light of day until God sees fit to remove His hand from you.” Barnabas and the Proconsul were astonished at these words, but they really jumped up in alarm when they saw what was happening to Elymas. Immediately after Paul had finished, Elymas began clutching at his eyes and waving his hands about as if he were standing in some kind of fog and was trying to see his way through it. Then he began crying out and begged for someone to come and help him find his way.
ἐζήτει = inchoative imperfect
τότε ἰδὼν ὁ ἀνθύπατος τὸ γεγονὸς ἐπίστευσεν ἐκπλησσόμενος ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ τοῦ κυρίου.
Then, seeing this happening, the Proconsul believed being amazed at the teaching of the Lord.
Paraphrase: The Proconsul was shocked at what he had seen and listened all the more closely to what the Apostles told him about Jesus. In time, he surrendered himself completely to Jesus and became a disciple.
Ἀναχθέντες δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς Πάφου οἱ περὶ Παῦλον ἦλθον εἰς Πέργην τῆς Παμφυλίας· Ἰωάννης δὲ ἀποχωρήσας ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα.
αὐτοὶ δὲ διελθόντες ἀπὸ τῆς Πέργης παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν τὴν Πισιδίαν, καὶ εἰσελθόντες εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων ἐκάθισαν.
μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν ἀπέστειλαν οἱ ἀρχισυνάγωγοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντες· Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, εἴ τίς ἐστιν ἐν ὑμῖν λόγος παρακλήσεως πρὸς τὸν λαόν, λέγετε.
ἀναστὰς δὲ Παῦλος καὶ κατασείσας τῇ χειρὶ εἶπεν· Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλῖται καὶ οἱ φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν, ἀκούσατε.
ὁ θεὸς τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου Ἰσραὴλ ἐξελέξατο τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν, καὶ τὸν λαὸν ὕψωσεν ἐν τῇ παροικίᾳ ἐν γῇ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ μετὰ βραχίονος ὑψηλοῦ ἐξήγαγεν αὐτοὺς ἐξ αὐτῆς,
Here Paul recites the great acts of God which He performed on behalf of His people. Ramsay writes:
The history of the Jewish people becomes intelligible only as leading onward to a higher development: this higher stage came in “the fulness of time” (Galatians 4:4), and constituted the climax of their history, when God fulfilled His promise, and when the Jews by condemning Jesus fulfilled prophecy (Acts 13:27, 32 f.). source
καί, ὡς τεσσερακονταετῆ χρόνον ἐτροποφόρησεν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ,
καὶ καθελὼν ἔθνη ἑπτὰ ἐν γῇ Χανάαν κατεκληρονόμησεν τὴν γῆν αὐτῶν
ὡς ἔτεσι τετρακοσίοις καὶ πεντήκοντα. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἔδωκεν κριτὰς ἕως Σαμουὴλ τοῦ προφήτου.
κἀκεῖθεν ᾐτήσαντο βασιλέα, καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς τὸν Σαοὺλ υἱὸν Κίς, ἄνδρα ἐκ φυλῆς Βενιαμίν, ἔτη τεσσεράκοντα·
καὶ μεταστήσας αὐτὸν ἤγειρεν τὸν Δαυὶδ αὐτοῖς εἰς βασιλέα, ᾧ καὶ εἶπεν μαρτυρήσας· Εὗρον Δαυὶδ τὸν τοῦ Ἰεσσαί, ἄνδρα κατὰ τὴν καρδίαν μου, ὃς ποιήσει πάντα τὰ θελήματά μου.
τούτου ὁ θεὸς ἀπὸ τοῦ σπέρματος κατ’ ἐπαγγελίαν ἤγαγεν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ σωτῆρα Ἰησοῦν,
Of this [man], God, from his seed, according to promise, brought a Savior, Jesus, to Israel.
Paraphrase: Now God had made a promise to David that one of his children should be a Savior to the nation of Israel (2 Samuel 7:10-16; Psalm 132:11; Isaiah 11:1), and Jesus is God’s Man, the One whom He has chosen and sent to bring salvation to His people.
προκηρύξαντος Ἰωάννου πρὸ προσώπου τῆς εἰσόδου αὐτοῦ βάπτισμα μετανοίας παντὶ τῷ λαῷ Ἰσραήλ.
ὡς δὲ ἐπλήρου Ἰωάννης τὸν δρόμον, ἔλεγεν· Τί ἐμὲ ὑπονοεῖτε εἶναι; οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐγώ· ἀλλ’ ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται μετ’ ἐμὲ οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἄξιος τὸ ὑπόδημα τῶν ποδῶν λῦσαι.
Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, υἱοὶ γένους Ἀβραὰμ καὶ οἱ ἐν ὑμῖν φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν, ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος τῆς σωτηρίας ταύτης ἐξαπεστάλη.
Men, brothers, sons of Abraham’s family and those among you who are fearing God, to us, the word of this salvation is sent.
Paraphrase: Oh children of Abraham, people of Israel, and all of you who have thrown in your lot with God’s people. It is to us that this glorious message of salvation has been sent.
οἱ γὰρ κατοικοῦντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες αὐτῶν τοῦτον ἀγνοήσαντες καὶ τὰς φωνὰς τῶν προφητῶν τὰς κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον ἀναγινωσκομένας κρίναντες ἐπλήρωσαν,
καὶ μηδεμίαν αἰτίαν θανάτου εὑρόντες ᾐτήσαντο Πιλᾶτον ἀναιρεθῆναι αὐτόν·
ὡς δὲ ἐτέλεσαν πάντα τὰ περὶ αὐτοῦ γεγραμμένα, καθελόντες ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου ἔθηκαν εἰς μνημεῖον.
ὁ δὲ θεὸς ἤγειρεν αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν·
But God raised Him from the dead.
Paraphrase: But after three days had passed, God brought Him back to life, and
ὃς ὤφθη ἐπὶ ἡμέρας πλείους τοῖς συναναβᾶσιν αὐτῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ, οἵτινες νῦν εἰσὶ μάρτυρες αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν λαόν.
Who was seen for many days to those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who now are His witnesses to the people.
Paraphrase: …those people who had accompanied him on the trip from Galilee to Jerusalem saw Him alive and are eyewitnesses to His resurrection.
καὶ ἡμεῖς ὑμᾶς εὐαγγελιζόμεθα τὴν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἐπαγγελίαν γενομένην
and we announce good news to you; i.e. the promise being made to the fathers.
Paraphrase: Now this is the good news which we are proclaiming everywhere. We are announcing that the glorious promise which defines us as a people, the covenant which God made with Abraham, and repeated to the nation of Israel, and later given to David as well, that promise has now been fulfilled.
ὅτι ταύτην ὁ θεὸς ἐκπεπλήρωκεν τοῖς τέκνοις ἡμῶν ἀναστήσας Ἰησοῦν, ὡς καὶ ἐν τῷ ψαλμῷ γέγραπται τῷ δευτέρῳ· Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε.
that this [promise] God has fulfilled to our children raising Jesus as even in the second Psalm it is written: “You are my Son; today I have fathered you.”
Paraphrase: To what promise am I referring? It is God’s promise to send His Son for the redemption of His people. This promise is given us in several places. First, consider the promise God the Father gave to His Son in Psalm 2:7 “Today, I announce that You are My Son! and I am your Father!” Well that day has arrived. The day of Jesus’ resurrection is the day mentioned in this Psalm, the day when God publicly declared to all Israel that the Man, Jesus is His Son, the anointed One, the Messiah. (Romans 1:4; cf Acts 2:36) Jesus is the One whom God has sent on a mission of salvation to redeem His chosen people.
See translation and paraphrase of Psalm 2.
Some see the adoptionist theory in this text.
ὅτι δὲ ἀνέστησεν αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν μηκέτι μέλλοντα ὑποστρέφειν εἰς διαφθοράν, οὕτως εἴρηκεν ὅτι Δώσω ὑμῖν τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά.
and that He raised Him from the dead, no longer being about to return to decay. In this manner, He spoke “I will give to you the holy and faithful [promises] of David.
Paraphrase: Second, consider the promise mentioned by the prophet Isaiah when he wrote: “I will surely keep the promises I made to My servant, David because these promises are irrevocable and can never fail.” (Hebrews 6:16-19) Why do we believe that the promises
What kind of ὅτι do we have here? I am taking it (here and the one in the previous verse) as a content ὅτι, giving us the content of the ἐπαγγελίαν in v32.
διότι καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ λέγει· Οὐ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν·
and that He raised Him from the dead, no longer being about to return to decay. In this manner, He spoke “I will give to you the holy and faithful [promises] of David.
Δαυὶδ μὲν γὰρ ἰδίᾳ γενεᾷ ὑπηρετήσας τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ βουλῇ ἐκοιμήθη καὶ προσετέθη πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας αὐτοῦ καὶ εἶδεν διαφθοράν,
ὃν δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἤγειρεν οὐκ εἶδεν διαφθοράν.
Γνωστὸν οὖν ἔστω ὑμῖν, ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι διὰ τούτου, ὑμῖν ἄφεσις ἁμαρτιῶν καταγγέλλεται.
Therefore, let it be known to you, men brothers, that through this [Man], to you forgiveness of sins is proclaimed…
Paraphrase: Now what does all this mean? It means that our sin and the punishment which we deserve because of it can only be removed by Jesus. This is what we preach to all who will listen; this is the gospel.
For ἔστω, see BBG 33.3.
καὶ ἀπὸ πάντων ὧν οὐκ ἠδυνήθητε ἐν νόμῳ Μωϋσέως δικαιωθῆναι, ἐν τούτῳ πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων δικαιοῦται.
and from all of what you were not able to be justified in the law of Moses. In this Man, all believers are justified.
Paraphrase: You might think that the only way to get right with God is by a careful and strict observance of the laws which Moses gave us. The truth is, however, that such an effort is futile and certain to fail. Being one with Moses did not (Hebrews 7:19, 27) and will not resolve our guilt problem. We cannot get right with God by obeying its commands no matter how hard we try. Thank God, there is a better way, and it’s all about Jesus. When we come to our resurrected King and join ourselves to Him, there is an immediate cancellation of all charges made against us. (Colossians 2:13-14) The law no longer has any claim against a believer because it has no claim against Jesus. And this applies to everyone no matter their ethnicity. If you are one with Jesus, then you are in a right relationship with God.
Furneaux says this is the argument of the Epistle to Galatians and Romans in a single sentence. source
βλέπετε οὖν μὴ ἐπέλθῃ τὸ εἰρημένον ἐν τοῖς προφήταις·
Ἴδετε, οἱ καταφρονηταί, καὶ θαυμάσατε καὶ ἀφανίσθητε, ὅτι ἔργον ἐργάζομαι ἐγὼ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ὑμῶν, ἔργον ὃ οὐ μὴ πιστεύσητε ἐάν τις ἐκδιηγῆται ὑμῖν.
Ἐξιόντων δὲ αὐτῶν παρεκάλουν εἰς τὸ μεταξὺ σάββατον λαληθῆναι αὐτοῖς τὰ ῥήματα ταῦτα.
λυθείσης δὲ τῆς συναγωγῆς ἠκολούθησαν πολλοὶ τῶν Ἰουδαίων καὶ τῶν σεβομένων προσηλύτων τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ τῷ Βαρναβᾷ, οἵτινες προσλαλοῦντες αὐτοῖς ἔπειθον· αὐτοὺς προσμένειν τῇ χάριτι τοῦ θεοῦ.
Τῷ δὲ ἐρχομένῳ σαββάτῳ σχεδὸν πᾶσα ἡ πόλις συνήχθη ἀκοῦσαι τὸν λόγον τοῦ κυρίου.
Now on the coming Sabbath, almost all the city assembled to hear the word of the Lord.
Paraphrase: Neither did the enthusiasm for the preaching of Paul and Barnabas let up the following week. The next Sabbath, nearly the entire city showed up to hear the preaching of God’s word.
ἀκοῦσαι = infinitive of purpose §2008, 2009.
ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τοὺς ὄχλους ἐπλήσθησαν ζήλου καὶ ἀντέλεγον τοῖς ὑπὸ Παύλου λαλουμένοις βλασφημοῦντες.
Now the Jews, seeing the crowds, were filled of jealousy and opposing the things being spoken by Paul, blaspheming.
Paraphrase: Now as the Jews were gathering for their own Sabbath services, they couldn’t help but notice the great interest there was in Paul and Barnabas’s teaching. This in turn led the rabbis to burn with jealousy against these two men, and they began to speak against the things Paul and Barnabas were teaching. They even heaped curses on these two men and their doctrines.
ζήλου = genitive of content (GGBB 92)
both ἰδόντες and βλασφημοῦντες are modifying Ἰουδαῖοι (cf principle 7). τοῖς belongs to λαλουμένοις.
παρρησιασάμενοί τε ὁ Παῦλος καὶ ὁ Βαρναβᾶς εἶπαν· Ὑμῖν ἦν ἀναγκαῖον πρῶτον λαληθῆναι τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ· ἐπειδὴ ἀπωθεῖσθε αὐτὸν καὶ οὐκ ἀξίους κρίνετε ἑαυτοὺς τῆς αἰωνίου ζωῆς, ἰδοὺ στρεφόμεθα εἰς τὰ ἔθνη·
Then Paul and Barnabas being bold said, “To you it was necessary first to speak the word of God; since you are pushing Him away and not worthy you judge yourselves of eternal life, behold we turn to the Gentiles.
Paraphrase: But Paul and Barnabas were not fazed by this opposition. They told the Jews about their privilege in the things of God. “Jesus gave us a mandate to always preach the gospel to you first since you are His own chosen people. (Matthew 10:5-6; Luke 24:47; Romans 1:16) You, however, have dismissed Jesus as no one special. By doing this, you have pronounced your own sentence. You have made your own decision that you do not want eternal life and that you are willing to be cast out of God’s presence on the last great day of judgment. Having made this decision for yourselves, we are now taking this gospel and holding it out to the Gentiles. Look at them; they are constantly coming to us and asking us to teach them truth about Jesus. By doing this, they make it clear that they believe Jesus to be the only Savior of the world and that they gladly receive from Him the free gift of eternal life.”
οὕτως γὰρ ἐντέταλται ἡμῖν ὁ κύριος· Τέθεικά σε εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν τοῦ εἶναί σε εἰς σωτηρίαν ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς.
For in this manner, the Lord commanded us, “I have appointed you for a light of the nations in order that you might be for salvation until the end of the earth.
Paraphrase: Yes, Jesus commanded us to begin with you Jews, but He also made it clear that we were not to stop with you. “There are other sheep,” He told us, “which are not of this fold.” These too would hear His voice and would join His people. He told us that He wanted there to be one flock with one Shepherd. He reminded us of what Isaiah, the prophet, prophesied, “I have appointed you to be a light for every nation on earth so that they might find their way back to Me by way of your witness.”
ἀκούοντα δὲ τὰ ἔθνη ἔχαιρον καὶ ἐδόξαζον τὸν λόγον τοῦ κυρίου, καὶ ἐπίστευσαν ὅσοι ἦσαν τεταγμένοι εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον·
Then the Gentiles, hearing, were rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord and they believed, as many as had been drawn up for eternal life believed.
Paraphrase: Now when the Gentiles heard what Paul and Barnabas were saying to the Jews, they were filled with joy. The worship services extended long into the night with each one singing and making melodies to their Savior, Jesus. It just seemed as if they couldn’t get enough of the preaching which Paul and Barnabas brought them from the Scripture. One by one, they professed their faith and were baptized along with their families. Paul and Barnabas were also filled with delight as they saw the secret election of God taking shape and becoming visible before their eyes. It was as if an army general was calling out each one of his soldiers from the general population and giving him a place in the ranks.
The word τεταγμένοι or τασσω can mean that someone decides himself on a course of action as in 1 Corinthians 16:15 where the household of Stephanas devoted themselves (τασσω) to the ministry. The more usual meaning, however, is that someone else decides on a given course of action and appoints the person to do it as in Romans 13:1 where the civil rulers are appointed (τασσω) by God. Whitby cannot understand how it is consistent for Paul to preach the gospel to all these people even while knowing in his own mind that God had appointed only some of them to eternal life. Hodge answers in Q19 here.
διεφέρετο δὲ ὁ λόγος τοῦ κυρίου δι’ ὅλης τῆς χώρας.
οἱ δὲ Ἰουδαῖοι παρώτρυναν τὰς σεβομένας γυναῖκας τὰς εὐσχήμονας καὶ τοὺς πρώτους τῆς πόλεως καὶ ἐπήγειραν διωγμὸν ἐπὶ τὸν Παῦλον καὶ Βαρναβᾶν, καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτοὺς ἀπὸ τῶν ὁρίων αὐτῶν.
οἱ δὲ ἐκτιναξάμενοι τὸν κονιορτὸν τῶν ποδῶν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ἦλθον εἰς Ἰκόνιον,
οἵ τε μαθηταὶ ἐπληροῦντο χαρᾶς καὶ πνεύματος ἁγίου.