Πρωΐας δὲ γενομένης συμβούλιον ἔλαβον πάντες οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι τοῦ λαοῦ κατὰ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ὥστε θανατῶσαι αὐτόν·
καὶ δήσαντες αὐτὸν ἀπήγαγον καὶ παρέδωκαν Πιλάτῳ τῷ ἡγεμόνι.
Τότε ἰδὼν Ἰούδας ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν ὅτι κατεκρίθη μεταμεληθεὶς ἔστρεψεν τὰ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν καὶ πρεσβυτέροις
λέγων· Ἥμαρτον παραδοὺς αἷμα ἀθῷον. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν· Τί πρὸς ἡμᾶς; σὺ ὄψῃ.
καὶ ῥίψας τὰ ἀργύρια εἰς τὸν ναὸν ἀνεχώρησεν, καὶ ἀπελθὼν ἀπήγξατο.
οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς λαβόντες τὰ ἀργύρια εἶπαν· Οὐκ ἔξεστιν βαλεῖν αὐτὰ εἰς τὸν κορβανᾶν, ἐπεὶ τιμὴ αἵματός ἐστιν·
συμβούλιον δὲ λαβόντες ἠγόρασαν ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν Ἀγρὸν τοῦ Κεραμέως εἰς ταφὴν τοῖς ξένοις.
διὸ ἐκλήθη ὁ ἀγρὸς ἐκεῖνος Ἀγρὸς Αἵματος ἕως τῆς σήμερον.
τότε ἐπληρώθη τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἰερεμίου τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος· Καὶ ἔλαβον τὰ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια, τὴν τιμὴν τοῦ τετιμημένου ὃν ἐτιμήσαντο ἀπὸ υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ,
καὶ ἔδωκαν αὐτὰ εἰς τὸν ἀγρὸν τοῦ κεραμέως, καθὰ συνέταξέν μοι κύριος.
Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐστάθη ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ ἡγεμόνος· καὶ ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτὸν ὁ ἡγεμὼν λέγων· Σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη· Σὺ λέγεις.
Now Jesus was standing before the governor and the governor asked him saying, “Are you the king of the Jews?” and Jesus said, “you said.”
Paraphrase: Now to return to Jesus and Pilate. Jesus had been arrested by the Jewish leaders and was now arraigned before Pilate. Pilate began the proceedings with the question, “Are you the king of the Jews? The Jewish leaders are claiming that you have proclaimed yourself king even to the point of advising people to stop paying their taxes. (Luke 23:2) Is this true? How do you plead?”
Jesus replied to this accusation, “If you say so.”
Blomberg says that Jesus’ reply here Σὺ λέγεις should be interpreted as “Your words not mine.” Blomberg, Matthew, New American Commentary, 410. The apparent evasiveness of Jesus’ answer is almost certainly because Jesus knows that Pilate will totally misunderstand Jesus’ concept of kingship. Pilate’s concern here is purely political. He needs to determine if Jesus represents any threat to the Roman hegemony, and he probably is already thinking that this is simply an internal Jewish quarrel. Jesus does not deny that He is a king; He just wants to clarify what He means by this (cf John 18:36,37).
καὶ ἐν τῷ κατηγορεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ πρεσβυτέρων οὐδὲν ἀπεκρίνατο.
and when He was accused by the priests and elders, He answered nothing.
Paraphrase: The leading priests of the Sanhedrin, however, and the elders continued to press their accusations. They insisted that Jesus was a dangerous revolutionary Who Pilate needed to deal with quickly and decisively. Jesus, however, made no effort to respond to their accusations.
αὐτὸν is the agent of the infinitive κατηγορεῖσθαι and hence in the accusative case. (BBG 32.9) See BBG 32.15 for the meaning of an articular infinitive with εν.
τότε λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Οὐκ ἀκούεις πόσα σου καταμαρτυροῦσιν;
Then Pilate said to Him, “Do you not hear how many charges they are bringing against you?
Paraphrase: Pilate looked at Jesus standing there silently and was a little surprised at His calm demeanor and seeming lack of interest in what was going down. Jesus seemed entirely unconcerned about what they were saying. Finally Pilate blurted out, “Don’t you even hear what they are saying? Do you not have anything to say for yourself!?”
πόσα is an interrogative pronoun, and the translator supplies the noun it is modifying.
καὶ οὐκ ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ πρὸς οὐδὲ ἓν ῥῆμα, ὥστε θαυμάζειν τὸν ἡγεμόνα λίαν.
and He did not answer him to a word, not one so that the governor marveled exceedingly.
Paraphrase: Jesus, however, gave no reply. He did not even offer one word of defense. In fact, Jesus was so serene throughout these proceedings that Pilate was completely astonished. He’d never seen anyone with so little concern to defend him or herself.
Κατὰ δὲ ἑορτὴν εἰώθει ὁ ἡγεμὼν ἀπολύειν ἕνα τῷ ὄχλῳ δέσμιον ὃν ἤθελον.
Now at each feast, the governor was accustomed to release to the crowd one prisoner whom they desired.
Paraphrase: Pilate was growing increasingly irritated with this situation. On the one hand, he knew full well that Jesus represented no threat to the political fabric of the region. He also knew, however, that he had to placate the Jewish leaders. He remembered previous occasions where he had offended them and provoked them to a riot. He knew what a powder keg they were, and he couldn’t risk another report of a Jewish riot getting back to the top brass in Rome. Suddenly, the thought came to him that he had always pardoned one convict at the time of Passover. As a token of goodwill to the Jews, he would let them pick one convict for release. With Passover right around the corner, the Jews would be expecting this favor again. This presented Pilate with a way out of his dilemma. This time, he would make the choice for them. He would rig the options such that Jesus was sure to be released. Problem solved.
The preposition κατα can have a distributive meaning. (GGBB p377)
ἀπολύειν is a complementary infinitive.
εἶχον δὲ τότε δέσμιον ἐπίσημον λεγόμενον Βαραββᾶν.
Now at this time, there was a notorious prisoner named Barabbas.
Paraphrase: Now what other person could Pilate put up alongside Jesus? Then Pilate thought of Barabbas. He would be perfect for this. This man’s reputation was well known. He had participated in an insurrection some time ago and had even committed murder. (Luke 23:19) Everyone knew he was a man given over to vice, theft, and crime of all sorts. (John 18:40) If Pilate gave the Jews the option to have Jesus released or Barabbas, surely they would beg to have Jesus released. No one in their right mind would want Barabbas back on the streets.
τότε = adverb of time
συνηγμένων οὖν αὐτῶν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Τίνα θέλετε ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν, Βαραββᾶν ἢ Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον χριστόν;
Therefore, as they were gathering, Pilate said to them, “Who do you desire that I release to you? Barabbas or Jesus who is called ‘Christ’?”
Paraphrase: Pilate congratulated himself on finding this way of getting out from under this unpleasant situation. He also noticed with some alarm that the crowd outside was steadily increasing in size; Pilate had to move quickly. He beckoned to the Jewish leaders and said, “I have a proposal to make; please hear me out. It’s that time of year when I release one convict to you. I know you have been looking forward to this as you make preparations for your Passover feasts. This year, I am putting up two names from which you can choose who you would like to have released. The names are Barabbas or Jesus who I might add claims to be your Messiah. Please take a minute to make your choice and then let me know. I’ll be back directly to hear your answer.”
Note the genitive absolute συνηγμένων οὖν αὐτῶν.
ᾔδει γὰρ ὅτι διὰ φθόνον παρέδωκαν αὐτόν.
For he knew that on account of envy they delivered Him up.
Paraphrase: As Pilate turned to go back into the Praetorium, it was becoming increasingly obvious to him that the Jewish leaders were driven by simple envy. There was no other explanation for it. Clearly, Jesus was no threat to the Romans, and Pilate knew that in spite of their accusations, the leadership had no concern for the Roman cause. On the other hand, Jesus clearly did represent a threat to the Jewish leadership. Pilate well knew that Jesus had quite a following and that the common people loved and supported Him. They had seen His acts of kindness, His humility, His purity, His miracles, and they loved Him for it. Pilate reckoned that the leaders just couldn’t stand this and were looking for any way to be done with Him. Furthermore, Pilate also anticipated that there was no way the common people would ever agree to have Barabbas back on the streets again.
ὅτι is a content ὅτι.
Καθημένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ λέγουσα· Μηδὲν σοὶ καὶ τῷ δικαίῳ ἐκείνῳ, πολλὰ γὰρ ἔπαθον σήμερον κατ’ ὄναρ δι’ αὐτόν.
Now when he was seated on his Bema, his wife sent to him saying, “Nothing to you and to that just Man, for I had been suffering many things today according to a dream on account of Him.
Paraphrase: Thus satisfied that he had the Jewish leaders right where he wanted them; Pilate entered the Praetorium, sat down on the Bema, and prepared to deliver his ruling. Just then, a servant came running to him with a message from his wife. She informed Pilate that she had suffered a terrible nightmare on account of Jesus and their treatment of Him. She insisted that she had no doubt but that He was completely innocent, and she urged Pilate to release Him as quickly as possible and to move on to other business.
Καθημένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος = genitive absolute
Is ἔπαθον a pluperfective imperfect? (GGBB 549)
Οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἔπεισαν τοὺς ὄχλους ἵνα αἰτήσωνται τὸν Βαραββᾶν τὸν δὲ Ἰησοῦν ἀπολέσωσιν.
Now the priests and elders persuaded the crowds in order that they might ask for Barabbas and Jesus be killed.
Paraphrase: Meanwhile, outside the Praetorium, the Jewish leaders were moving quickly. They immediately saw through Pilate’s scheme and went right to work to subvert it. “Pass the word!” they whispered. “Choose Barabbas and let’s do away with Jesus once and for all.” The crowd easily acquiesced to this.
ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἡγεμὼν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· Τίνα θέλετε ἀπὸ τῶν δύο ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν· Τὸν Βαραββᾶν.
The governor answered and said to them, “Who do you desire from the two that I might release to you?” Then they said, “Barabbas!”
Paraphrase: Again, Pilate got up from the Bema and returned to the porch where he addressed the leaders again. “It’s time to make up your mind,” he said, “Who do you want me to pardon and release do you, Barabbas or Jesus?” Pilate reeled back in astonishment at what followed; he was utterly thunderstruck at the response which came back to him as with one voice. “Barabbas!!”
I am not sure what meaning ἀποκριθεὶς has here.
λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Τί οὖν ποιήσω Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον χριστόν; λέγουσιν πάντες· Σταυρωθήτω.
Pilate said to them, “What then will I do with Jesus, who is claiming to be Christ?” They all said, “Crucify!”
Paraphrase: Pilate sprang forward in a rage. “What?!,” he cried out in disbelief. “You people are insane! Would you rather have that cutthroat Barabbas loose on your streets than this poor, penniless, powerless man? Let me ask you, then. What do you think should be done with this Man who as I said before claims to be your Messiah?” Again, the answer came back as with one voice, “Death by Crucifixion!!”
ὁ δὲ ἔφη· Τί γὰρ κακὸν ἐποίησεν; οἱ δὲ περισσῶς ἔκραζον λέγοντες· Σταυρωθήτω.
Then he said, “Why? For what evil did He do? and they were crying the more saying, “Crucify!”
Paraphrase: Pilate roared back at them, “Why? You can’t just execute a man because you don’t like him or because he irritates you! You need to be able to prove that he’s committed a capital crime and is deserving of such a punishment. We’re Romans here, not savages. We don’t execute people without just cause. Now you show me the proof that He has committed such a crime, and I’ll happily turn Him over to you.”
At this, the crowd became equally incensed and began to yell, “Death by crucifixion!! Death by crucifixion!! Death by crucifixion!!”
ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Πιλᾶτος ὅτι οὐδὲν ὠφελεῖ ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον θόρυβος γίνεται λαβὼν ὕδωρ ἀπενίψατο τὰς χεῖρας ἀπέναντι τοῦ ὄχλου λέγων· Ἀθῷός εἰμι ἀπὸ τοῦ αἵματος τούτου· ὑμεῖς ὄψεσθε.
Now Pilate, seeing that nothing was helping but rather a mob was forming and taking water, he washed off his hands before the crowd saying, “Innocent I am of this blood; you see.”
Paraphrase: At this point, Pilate realized that he was defeated. Things were going from bad to worse. The crowd was growing larger by the minute and was fast becoming riotous. He knew from past experience that any further effort to pacify them would be utterly futile. The stark reality of the situation slammed him full in the face. The thought of losing this battle to the wild savages who were baying for Jesus’ blood violated his sense of Roman justice. The thought that a report of this incident would surely find its way back to Rome and count as another mark against his administration was equally unpleasant. Then his wife’s dream was surely a clear direction from the gods that Jesus really was innocent. Last of all, the calm serenity of this Man and His complete lack of interest in clearing His Name haunted him. Surely this Man knew something that Pilate did not. How could He just stand there and let people abuse Him like that? There was something mysterious about Him, something greater than Pilate, greater even than all the glory of Rome. The injustice of what he was about to do held Pilate in its terrible grip. Desperate to quiet his speaking conscience, he told a servant to bring him a bowl of water.
Again, he stepped out in front of the people, placed the bowl on the ledge in plain view of them all and said. “Have it your way. I will turn Jesus over to you, but be assured of this. I do not find any just cause for punishment in this Man.” With that, he plunged his hands into the water and washed them vigorously. “The guilt for this injustice is not mine;” he cried out. “It’s all yours!”
Note the article in ἀπενίψατο τὰς χεῖρας is a possessive pronoun. (GGBB p215)
καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς πᾶς ὁ λαὸς εἶπεν· Τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν.
τότε ἀπέλυσεν αὐτοῖς τὸν Βαραββᾶν, τὸν δὲ Ἰησοῦν φραγελλώσας παρέδωκεν ἵνα σταυρωθῇ.
Τότε οἱ στρατιῶται τοῦ ἡγεμόνος παραλαβόντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον συνήγαγον ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ὅλην τὴν σπεῖραν.
καὶ ἐκδύσαντες αὐτὸν χλαμύδα κοκκίνην περιέθηκαν αὐτῷ,
καὶ πλέξαντες στέφανον ἐξ ἀκανθῶν ἐπέθηκαν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ κάλαμον ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ, καὶ γονυπετήσαντες ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ ἐνέπαιξαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες· Χαῖρε, βασιλεῦ τῶν Ἰουδαίων,
καὶ ἐμπτύσαντες εἰς αὐτὸν ἔλαβον τὸν κάλαμον καὶ ἔτυπτον εἰς τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ.
καὶ ὅτε ἐνέπαιξαν αὐτῷ, ἐξέδυσαν αὐτὸν τὴν χλαμύδα καὶ ἐνέδυσαν αὐτὸν τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀπήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ σταυρῶσαι.
Ἐξερχόμενοι δὲ εὗρον ἄνθρωπον Κυρηναῖον ὀνόματι Σίμωνα· τοῦτον ἠγγάρευσαν ἵνα ἄρῃ τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ.
Καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τόπον λεγόμενον Γολγοθᾶ, ὅ ἐστιν Κρανίου Τόπος λεγόμενος,
ἔδωκαν αὐτῷ πιεῖν οἶνον μετὰ χολῆς μεμιγμένον· καὶ γευσάμενος οὐκ ἠθέλησεν πιεῖν.
σταυρώσαντες δὲ αὐτὸν διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ βάλλοντες κλῆρον,
καὶ καθήμενοι ἐτήρουν αὐτὸν ἐκεῖ.
καὶ ἐπέθηκαν ἐπάνω τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ τὴν αἰτίαν αὐτοῦ γεγραμμένην· Οὗτός ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων.
Τότε σταυροῦνται σὺν αὐτῷ δύο λῃσταί, εἷς ἐκ δεξιῶν καὶ εἷς ἐξ εὐωνύμων.
οἱ δὲ παραπορευόμενοι ἐβλασφήμουν αὐτὸν κινοῦντες τὰς κεφαλὰς αὐτῶν
καὶ λέγοντες· Ὁ καταλύων τὸν ναὸν καὶ ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις οἰκοδομῶν, σῶσον σεαυτόν· εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, κατάβηθι ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυροῦ.
ὁμοίως καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς ἐμπαίζοντες μετὰ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ πρεσβυτέρων ἔλεγον·
Ἄλλους ἔσωσεν, ἑαυτὸν οὐ δύναται σῶσαι· βασιλεὺς Ἰσραήλ ἐστιν, καταβάτω νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυροῦ καὶ πιστεύσομεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν.
πέποιθεν ἐπὶ τὸν θεόν, ῥυσάσθω νῦν εἰ θέλει αὐτόν· εἶπεν γὰρ ὅτι Θεοῦ εἰμι υἱός.
τὸ δ’ αὐτὸ καὶ οἱ λῃσταὶ οἱ συσταυρωθέντες σὺν αὐτῷ ὠνείδιζον αὐτόν.
Ἀπὸ δὲ ἕκτης ὥρας σκότος ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἕως ὥρας ἐνάτης.
περὶ δὲ τὴν ἐνάτην ὥραν ἀνεβόησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγων· Ἠλὶ ἠλὶ λεμὰ σαβαχθάνι; τοῦτ’ ἔστιν· Θεέ μου θεέ μου, ἱνατί με ἐγκατέλιπες;
τινὲς δὲ τῶν ἐκεῖ ἑστηκότων ἀκούσαντες ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἠλίαν φωνεῖ οὗτος.
καὶ εὐθέως δραμὼν εἷς ἐξ αὐτῶν καὶ λαβὼν σπόγγον πλήσας τε ὄξους καὶ περιθεὶς καλάμῳ ἐπότιζεν αὐτόν.
οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ ἔλεγον· Ἄφες ἴδωμεν εἰ ἔρχεται Ἠλίας σώσων αὐτόν.
ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν κράξας φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ἀφῆκεν τὸ πνεῦμα.
καὶ ἰδοὺ τὸ καταπέτασμα τοῦ ναοῦ ἐσχίσθη ἀπ’ ἄνωθεν ἕως κάτω εἰς δύο, καὶ ἡ γῆ ἐσείσθη, καὶ αἱ πέτραι ἐσχίσθησαν,
καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα ἀνεῴχθησαν καὶ πολλὰ σώματα τῶν κεκοιμημένων ἁγίων ἠγέρθησαν,
καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκ τῶν μνημείων μετὰ τὴν ἔγερσιν αὐτοῦ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς.
Ὁ δὲ ἑκατόνταρχος καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ τηροῦντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἰδόντες τὸν σεισμὸν καὶ τὰ γενόμενα ἐφοβήθησαν σφόδρα λέγοντες· Ἀληθῶς θεοῦ υἱὸς ἦν οὗτος.
Ἦσαν δὲ ἐκεῖ γυναῖκες πολλαὶ ἀπὸ μακρόθεν θεωροῦσαι, αἵτινες ἠκολούθησαν τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας διακονοῦσαι αὐτῷ·
ἐν αἷς ἦν Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωσὴφ μήτηρ καὶ ἡ μήτηρ τῶν υἱῶν Ζεβεδαίου.
Ὀψίας δὲ γενομένης ἦλθεν ἄνθρωπος πλούσιος ἀπὸ Ἁριμαθαίας, τοὔνομα Ἰωσήφ, ὃς καὶ αὐτὸς ἐμαθητεύθη τῷ Ἰησοῦ·
οὗτος προσελθὼν τῷ Πιλάτῳ ᾐτήσατο τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ. τότε ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἐκέλευσεν ἀποδοθῆναι.
καὶ λαβὼν τὸ σῶμα ὁ Ἰωσὴφ ἐνετύλιξεν αὐτὸ σινδόνι καθαρᾷ,
καὶ ἔθηκεν αὐτὸ ἐν τῷ καινῷ αὐτοῦ μνημείῳ ὃ ἐλατόμησεν ἐν τῇ πέτρᾳ, καὶ προσκυλίσας λίθον μέγαν τῇ θύρᾳ τοῦ μνημείου ἀπῆλθεν.
ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ ἡ ἄλλη Μαρία καθήμεναι ἀπέναντι τοῦ τάφου.
Τῇ δὲ ἐπαύριον, ἥτις ἐστὶν μετὰ τὴν παρασκευήν, συνήχθησαν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι πρὸς Πιλᾶτον
λέγοντες· Κύριε, ἐμνήσθημεν ὅτι ἐκεῖνος ὁ πλάνος εἶπεν ἔτι ζῶν· Μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας ἐγείρομαι·
κέλευσον οὖν ἀσφαλισθῆναι τὸν τάφον ἕως τῆς τρίτης ἡμέρας, μήποτε ἐλθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ κλέψωσιν αὐτὸν καὶ εἴπωσιν τῷ λαῷ· Ἠγέρθη ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν, καὶ ἔσται ἡ ἐσχάτη πλάνη χείρων τῆς πρώτης.
ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Ἔχετε κουστωδίαν· ὑπάγετε ἀσφαλίσασθε ὡς οἴδατε.
οἱ δὲ πορευθέντες ἠσφαλίσαντο τὸν τάφον σφραγίσαντες τὸν λίθον μετὰ τῆς κουστωδίας.