Volitional Moods

Cohortative

Cohortative verbs appear only in the first person (just as imperatives are only second person and jussives are third person).  A cohortative verb does not carry the full force of a command (We must do this…), but it conveys a stronger meaning than a simple suggestion or statement of possibility (We could do this…).  The meaning is somewhere in the middle.  In English, a cohortative is often translated with a helping verb such as “let” or “want” or “will,” depending on the context (“Let us do this!”). Thus, the cohortative verb functions as an indirect command; the reader must examine the context to determine the strength of desirability being expressed in each specific instance.

Parsing

Hebrew

Gloss

Qal singular

אֶקְטֹלָה

let me kill

Qal plural

נִקְטֹהלָה

let us kill

Niphal singular

אֶקָּטֵלָה

let me be killed

Niphal plural

נִקָּטֵלָה

let us be killed

Hiphil singular

אַקְטִילָה

let me cause to kill

Hiphil plural

נַקְטִילָה

let us cause to kill

Piel singular

אֲקַטֵּלָה

let me slaughter

Piel plural

נְקַטֵּלָה

let us slaughter

Hithpael singular

אֶתְקַטֵּלָה

let me kill myself

Hithpael plural

נִתְקַטֵּלָה

let us kill ourselves

video or KHW chp. 41.1.


Imperative:

Imperative verbs are used to express positive commands or instructions directed to another person(s). Thus, they are always in the second person.  Imperative verbs can express actions with varying degrees of desirability, including instructions, requests, permissions, invitations, assurances, wishes, etc. The context must determine the meaning of each instance.

Hebrew does not use the Imperative form to express negative commands; see here.

Qal imperative:

Parsing

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine singular

כְּבַד

you must be heavy

feminine singular

כִּבְדִי

you must be heavy

masculine plural

כִּבְדוּ

you must be heavy

feminine plural

כְּבַדְנָה

you must be heavy

Nifal imperative:

Parsing

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine singular

הִקָּטֵל

you must be killed

feminine singular

הִקָּטְלִי

you must be killed

masculine plural

הִקָּטְלוּ

you must be killed

feminine plural

הִקָּטַלְנָה

you must be killed

Hifil imperative:

Parsing

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine singular

הַקְטֵל

you must cause to kill

feminine singular

הַקְטִילִי

you must cause to kill

masculine plural

הַקְטִילוּ

you must cause to kill

feminine plural

הַקְטֵלְנָה

you must cause to kill

Piel imperative:

Parsing

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine singular

קַטֵּל

you must slaughter

feminine singular

קַטְּלִי

you must slaughter

masculine plural

קַטְּלוּ

you must slaughter

feminine plural

קַטֵּלְנָה

you must slaughter

Hitpael imperative:

Parsing

Hebrew

Gloss

masculine singular

הִתְקַטֵּל

he must kill himself

feminine singular

הִתְקַטְּלִי

she must kill herself

masculine plural

הִתְקַטְּלוּ

they must kill themselves

feminine plural

הִתְקַטֵּלְנָה

they must kill themselves


Jussive:

Jussive verbs look very similar to YQTLs and will be in the third person.  If possible (as with third-ה verbs), the jussive will apocopate.  The general rule is that when a third person YQTL (and no vav-conversive) is the first word in its clause, it is a jussive.  If not first in its clause, then it is just a regular YQTL.

In terms of its meaning, the jussive is very much like the cohortative.  It’s meaning falls somewhere between a full command and a simple statement of possibility.  In English, a jussive is often translated with the helping verb “may” or “let,” depending on the context (May he do this! or Let him do this!). Thus, a jussive verb can be an indirect command.


Qal Jussive:

Parsing Hebrew Gloss
masculine singular third person יִקְטֹל may he kill
feminine singular third person תִּקְטֹל may she kill
masculine singular second person תִּקְטֹל may you kill
feminine singular second person תִּקְטְלִי may you kill
masculine plural third person יִקְטְלוּ may they kill
feminine plural third person תִּקְטֹלְנָה may they kill
masculine plural second person תִּקְטְלוּ may you kill
feminine plural second person תִּקְטֹלְנָה may you kill

Nifal Jussive

Parsing Hebrew Gloss
masculine singular third person יִקָּטֵל may he be killed
feminine singular third person תִּקָּטֵל may she be killed
masculine singular second person תִּקָּטֵל may you be killed
feminine singular second person תִּקָּטְלִי may you be killed
masculine plural third person יִקָּטְלוּ may they be killed
feminine plural third person תִּקָּטַלְנָה may they be killed
masculine plural second person תִּקָּטְלוּ may you be killed
feminine plural second person תִּקָּטַלְנָה may you be killed

Hifil Jussive

Parsing Hebrew Gloss
masculine singular third person יַקְטֵל may he cause to kill
masculine singular second person תַּקְטֵל you will be caused to kill
feminine singular second person תַּקְטִילִי you will be caused to kill
feminine singular third person תַּקְטֵל may she cause to kill
masculine plural third person יַקְטִילוּ may they cause to kill
feminine plural third person תַּקְטֵלְנָה may they cause to kill
masculine plural second person תַּקְטִילוּ you will be caused to kill
feminine plural second person תַּקְטֵלְנָה you will be caused to kill

Hofal Jussive

Parsing Hebrew Gloss
masculine singular third person יָקְטַל may he be caused to kill
feminine singular third person תָּקְטַל may she be caused to kill
masculine singular second person תָּקְטַל may you be caused to kill
feminine singular second person תָּקְטְלִי may you be caused to kill
masculine plural third person יָקְטְלוּ may they be caused to kill
feminine plural third person תָּקְטַלְנָה may they be caused to kill
masculine plural second person תָּקְטְלוּ may you be caused to kill
feminine plural second person תָּקְטַלְנָה may you be caused to kill

Piel Jussive

Parsing Hebrew Gloss
masculine singular third person יְקַטֵּל may he slaughter
feminine singular third person תְּקַטֵּל may she slaughter
masculine singular second person תְּקַטֵּל may you slaughter
feminine singular second person תְּקַטְּלִי may you slaughter
masculine plural third person יְקַטְּלוּ may they slaughter
feminine plural third person תְּקַטַּלְנָה may they slaughter
masculine plural second person תְּקַטְּלוּ may you slaughter
feminine plural second person תְּקַטַּלְנָה may you slaughter

Pual Jussive

Parsing Hebrew Gloss
masculine singular third person יְקֻטַּל may he be slaughtered
feminine singular third person תְּקֻטַּל may she be slaughtered
masculine singular second person תְּקֻטַּל may you be slaughtered
feminine singular second person תְּקֻטְּלִי may you be slaughtered
masculine plural third person יְקֻטְּלוּ may they be slaughtered
feminine plural third person תְּקֻטַּלְנָה may they be slaughtered
masculine plural second person תְּקֻטְּלוּ may you be slaughtered
feminine plural second person תְּקֻטַּלְנָה may you be slaughtered

Hitpael Jussive

Parsing Hebrew Gloss
masculine singular third person יִתְקַטֵּל may he kill himself
feminine singular third person תִּתְקַטֵּל may she kill herself
masculine singular second person תִּתְקַטֵּל may you kill yourself
feminine singular second person תִּתְקַטְּלִי may you kill yourself
masculine plural third person יִתְקַטְּלוּ may they kill themselves
feminine plural third person תִּתְקַטֵּלְנָה may they kill themselves
masculine plural second person תִּתְקַטְּלוּ may you kill yourselves
feminine plural second person תִּתְקַטֵּלְנָה may you kill yourselves