ην τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινόν
αληθινον is an adjective meaning “true”
Note the article which precedes it. Since you have memorized the article paradigm, you are able to parse ἀληθινόν. It is nominative, singular, neuter.
We can also conclude from the presence of the article that this adjective is in attributive position. (cf. BBG 9.12)
ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον, ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον.
ὃ is the relative pronoun. Since it refers here to a person, use “who” not “which” or “that”.
Notice that ὃ agrees with its antecedent (φως) in number and gender (BBG 14.9).
The reason ὃ is in the nominative case is because it functions as the subject of this clause.
Every relative pronoun is also a DMW. Since the DMW is a relative pronoun, we know the clause is likely to be adjectival. If it is adjectival, it must be modifying some noun.
this verb means he gives light
This verb’s subject is the relative pronoun directly preceding it.
means “all” or “every”. It is an adjective modifying ανθρωπον.
See all the forms of πας.
when πας is singular and anarthrous it means “every” (principle 16).
ερχομενον means “coming”.
Note the case ending and the participle morpheme. These two things indicate that ερχομενον is a participle, not a verb.
Know the evolution of ερχομενον:
This participle is anarthrous which means it might be adjectival or adverbial. Here it is adjectival, but what noun is being modified? This is difficult because, simply by its spelling, it can be either nominative or accusative (again use the article paradigm to help parse).
|If ερχομενον is nominative…
|If ερχομενον is accusative…
|…then this participle modifies the relative pronoun ὃ
|…then this participle modifies ἄνθρωπον
|There was the true Light which, coming into the world, enlightens every man. (NASB)
|That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. (KJV)
|It is the light which is coming into the world.
|It is the man which is coming into the world.
If you have memorized the article paradigm, parsing κοσμον will not be difficult.
ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἦν
καὶ ὁ κόσμος δι’ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο καὶ ὁ κόσμος αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔγνω.
ουκ is the exact same word as ου. ου is used when the next word begins with a consonant; ουκ when the next work begins with a vowel. It is an adverb.
The verb εγνω is from γινωσκω; cf BBG page 201. This verb is also quite irregular so don’t sweat the details. Do note the augment, which at least helps you narrow this verb down to either an aorist or an imperfect (there are no imperfects of γινωσκω in the NT). Here’s its evolution:
γινωσκ- the present stem
γνω- the aorist stem; optional: see MBG for why these changes
εγνω add the augment
εγνω add the verb ending (there is no ending for the third, singular; secondary endings; see here or BBG p. 352)
εἰς τὰ ἴδια ἦλθεν καὶ οἱ ἴδιοι αὐτὸν οὐ παρέλαβον
εἰς τὰ ἴδια
Does εις here have a spatial meaning or advantage? (GGBB 369) You can only make this decision by analyzing the context and deciding which meaning best fits this context.
ιδια means “his own” ?
ηλθεν is from ερχομαι.
καὶ οἱ ἴδιοι αὐτὸν οὐ παρέλαβον
παρελαβον is a compound verb the preposition παρα and the verb λαμβανω merged into one word. Note the changed stem. This means λαμβανω is a second aorist. Here is the evolution:
λαμβαν- present tense stem
λαβ- aorist tense stem (since it differs from the present stem, it is a second aorist)
παραλαβ add the preposition to make the compound verb
παρελαβ add the augment
παρελαβο add the connecting vowel
παρελαβον add the verb ending (note: simply by its spelling, it could be either first singular or third plural)