Greek I; lesson 21

John 2:1

Καὶ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ γάμος ἐγένετο ἐν Κανὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας, καὶ ἦν ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐκεῖ·

  • τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ is clearly what kind of dative?
  • What part of speech is εκει?
  • What are the adverbial questions?
  • How does the term “second attributive” relate to this verse?


John 2:2

ἐκλήθη δὲ καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν γάμον.


  • Why can’t εκλήθη be active voice?
  • εκλήθη has a different stem in the aorist than in the present. The aorist stem is κλε-; the present stem is καλε- (MBG p. 281,2).

καλε-         present tense stem
κλε-             aorist tense stem (MBG p. 282)
εκλε              add the augment
εκλεθη           add the tense formative
εκληθη            principle 12


John 2:3

καὶ ὑστερήσαντος οἴνου λέγει ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ πρὸς αὐτόν· οἶνον οὐκ ἔχουσιν.


ύστερέ-           stem
ύστερέσα          tense formative
ύστερέσαντ        participle morpheme
ύστερέσαντος       case ending

ὑστερήσαντος οἴνου

Notice that ὑστερήσαντος and οἴνου are both genitive and that ὑστερήσαντος does not modify anything else in the sentence. This is a genitive absolute.
Here is what you need to know in order to translate these accurately:

  1. Translate this phrase as a dependent clause;
  2. Since the participle is aorist, we’ll use “after” as our DMW (BBG 30.12).
  3. Make the genitive noun the subject of the dependent clause;
  4. Make the participle the verb of the dependent clause.
  5. Translation – “and after the wine ran out, the mother of Jesus…


John 2:4

καὶ λέγει αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί, γύναι; οὔπω ἥκει ἡ ὥρα μου.

What case is γυναι? (BBG 13.10)

literally τι εμοι και σοι means – What to me and to you? Which paraphrased means, “this is none of our business.” cf. RWP and this.



John 2:5

λέγει ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ τοῖς διακόνοις· ὅ τι ἂν λέγῃ ὑμῖν ποιήσατε.

The αν changes the “what” (τι) to “whatever” (BBG 31.18).  Literally, the translation would be “whatever thing he might say to you…”.

  • ὅ τι ἂν λέγῃ ὑμῖν ποιήσατε is the DO of λεγει.
  • ὅ τι ἂν λέγῃ ὑμῖν ποιήσατε is a complex sentence all on its own.
  • ὅ τι ἂν λέγῃ ὑμῖν is the dependent clause; ποιήσατε is the independent clause.  Note also that this dependent clause is functioning as a noun. It is the DO of ποιησατε.

The subject of ποιησατε is an understood “you” as with every imperative verb.

λεγ-      stem
λεγε        add the connecting vowel
λεγει        add the verb ending
λεγηι         the connecting vowel lengthens to mark the subjunctive mood
λέγ            the iota subscripts


John 2:6

ἦσαν δὲ ἐκεῖ λίθιναι ὑδρίαι ἓξ κατὰ τὸν καθαρισμὸν τῶν Ἰουδαίων κείμεναι, χωροῦσαι ἀνὰ μετρητὰς δύο ἢ τρεῖς.

Notice all the modifiers of ὑδρίαι (note the agreement in gender, number case as per principle 7)

λίθιναι ὑδρίαι ἓξ is an example of an anarthrous attributive adjective.
What kind of conjunction is η?
Notice the morpheme in κείμεναι. gender? (principle 7)
What use of ανα here (GGBB 364)?


κει-            stem
κειμεν         participle morpheme minus the connecting vowel (MBG p. 316)
κειμεναι         case ending


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