- Affix – used to denote simple, completed action. Translated in the past tense.
- Prefix – used to denote incomplete action. Translated in the future tense, but usually is reversed by a vav-conversive.
Cohortative – (first person)
- Let us do such and such…
- I will do…
- We will do such and such…
Imperative – Command (second person)
Jussive – (third person)
- May he do such and such…
- Let them do such and such…
- He or they shall do such and such…
Infinitive construct – functions as a noun or adverb.
Noun: subject, object (complementary infinitive), or PN.
- Purpose – answers the “why?” question.
- Inceptive – “about to…”
- Temporal – answers the “when?” question.
- Manner – answers the “how?” question.
Infinitive absolute – Grammatical intensifier. “He shall surely die.”
Translate with a dependent clause unless it is predicate usage.
- Substantive – the participle functions as a noun; e.g. The ones who were guarding the fort fled.
- Attributive – the participle functions as an adjective; e.g. The soldiers, who were guarding the fort, fled.
- Predicate – The participle is a PA; e.g. The soldiers were fleeing the fort[/su_tooltip].