Psalm 110

Psalms 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150

Ps 110:1

לְדָוִ֗ד מִ֫זְמ֥וֹר נְאֻ֤ם יְהוָ֨ה׀ לַֽאדֹנִ֗י שֵׁ֥ב לִֽימִינִ֑י עַד־אָשִׁ֥ית אֹ֝יְבֶ֗יךָ הֲדֹ֣ם לְרַגְלֶֽיךָ׃

To David; a Mizmore; An oracle of YHWH to my Lord.  “Sit at my right side until I make your enemies a stool for your feet.”

Paraphrase:  This song was written by David as he neared the end of life.  At this time, he pondered the meaning of God’s promise to him that there would never be a time when one of his sons was not sitting on his throne. (2 Samuel 7:16)  As he was pondering this, God gave him a prophetic vision of heaven itself, the very dwelling place of God Almighty.  What he saw on that day, he recorded in this Psalm.

I was in the heavenly throne room when I heard the voice of YHWH, the Great King speaking.  He said to Adonai, “Take this seat at My right hand because I am about to send you on a mission.  You are going to be a great King. (Matthew 28:18)  This will be a mission of conquest; a mission in which you will gain a complete victory over all your enemies. (Psalm 2:8-9)  Once this is complete and your mission is accomplished, you will return to your place again.


For לְדָוִד, see the the lamed auctoris.

“The Psalms of the OT remarkably enough have no single, well recognized, universally accepted name by which they are designated in the Hebrew Scriptures.” source  For mizmore, see here.

נְאֻם is usually used to mark the beginning or end of a prophecy.  Delitzsch says that this word shows that these words are not the words of the people speaking about David, their king.  This word is always used to mark God’s speech. source

The עַד here implies that Adonai is to sit until the subjugation is complete; then something will happen which is not here stated.  What is it?  possibly 1 Corinthians 15:28?  Gesenius says that clauses introduced by this preposition sometimes express a limit which is not absolute; i.e. the action continues; in this case, the sitting at God’s right hand. §164f.


Ps 110:2

מַטֵּֽה־עֻזְּךָ֗ יִשְׁלַ֣ח יְ֭הוָה מִצִּיּ֑וֹן רְ֝דֵ֗ה בְּקֶ֣רֶב אֹיְבֶֽיךָ׃

The rod of your strength, YHWH will send from Zion; rule in the midst of your enemies.

Paraphrase:  YHWH, the Great King, will give you great victories with the result that your scepter will extend over all the earth as a sign of your universal sovereignty.  Even in those places where your most bitter enemies live, there YHWH will announce your sovereign rule, and all your enemies will bow before you.  



Ps 110:3

עַמְּךָ֣ נְדָבֹת֮ בְּי֪וֹם חֵ֫ילֶ֥ךָ בְּֽהַדְרֵי־קֹ֭דֶשׁ מֵרֶ֣חֶם מִשְׁחָ֑ר לְ֝ךָ֗ טַ֣ל יַלְדֻתֶֽיךָ׃

Your people are a free-will offering on the day of your strength; in the splendor of holiness, from the womb of the dawn, to you the dew of your youth.

Paraphrase:  When you summon your forces, you will find all of them fully committed to your cause just as when a person brings an offering just because they want to, not because they are under any obligation to do so.  They will join your cause, not because they were forced,  but because of their own inner conviction, because they believe in You and your cause.  Further, you will be dressed in the most majestic robes; I will clothe you with My own perfect holiness.  Every morning, you will rise up in might and go about your work.  Just as God sends the dew each morning again, so will your youthful energies and strength be restored to you each morning.  


A נְדָבָה was a voluntary sacrifice (Leviticus 22:23; 23:38) as opposed to one offered up because the offeror was under a vow or because he had committed some sin for which he was required to bring an offering. (Leviticus 4)  See the bottom of this page.

The “womb of the dawn” is a metaphor showing the coming again of the morning.


Ps 110:4

נִשְׁבַּ֤ע יְהוָ֨ה׀ וְלֹ֥א יִנָּחֵ֗ם אַתָּֽה־כֹהֵ֥ן לְעוֹלָ֑ם עַל־דִּ֝בְרָתִ֗י מַלְכִּי־צֶֽדֶק׃

YHWH has sworn and He will not relent; You are a priest forever on the the order of Melchizedek.

Paraphrase:  The Great King, YHWH, has sworn an oath, and He never goes back on His word.  He swore an oath to Adonai saying, “You are a Priest, and your term of priesthood will never end.  You will never have a successor as do the current priests.  Furthermore, you will not be a priest from the tribe of Levi but a priest in the order of Melchizedek.


This verse is further explained in Hebrews 7.


Ps 110:5

אֲדֹנָ֥י עַל־יְמִֽינְךָ֑ מָחַ֖ץ בְּיוֹם־אַפּ֣וֹ מְלָכִֽים׃


Ps 110:6

יָדִ֣ין בַּ֭גּוֹיִם מָלֵ֣א גְוִיּ֑וֹת מָ֥חַץ רֹ֝֗אשׁ עַל־אֶ֥רֶץ רַבָּֽה׃


Ps 110:7

מִ֭נַּחַל בַּדֶּ֣רֶךְ יִשְׁתֶּ֑ה עַל־כֵּ֝֗ן יָרִ֥ים רֹֽאשׁ׃

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