οὗτος ἦλθεν εἰς μαρτυρίαν ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός ἵνα πάντες πιστεύσωσιν δι’ αὐτοῦ
ουτος is the demonstrative pronoun.
ηλθεν is from ερχομαι. It is an aorist tense verb but note the absence of a tense formative. It is second aorist, so we expect the stem of ηλθεν to differ from the present tense of the same verb (ερχομαι). The nu on the end of this verb is a movable nu.
|stem is ερχ-|
|Takes primary endings (no augment)||Takes secondary endings (yes augment)|
|Translate into the English present tense||Translate into the English past tense|
|ἔρχομαι – I come||ηλθον – I came|
|ἔρχῃ – you come||ηλθες – you came|
|ἔρχεται – he/she/it comes||ηλθε(ν) – he/she/it came|
|ἐρχόμεθα – we come||ηλθομεν – we came|
|ἔρχεσθε – you come||ηλθετε – you came|
|ἔρχονται – they come||ηλθον – they came|
This is a prepositional phrase.
ινα is a DMW. Since it is a DMW, we know it marks the beginning of a dependent clause.
In English, there are two kinds of DMWs, subordinating conjunctions and relative pronouns. In Greek, things are roughly similar. ινα is a subordinating conjunction.
Every clause has a subject and verb. Here μαρτυρηση is the verb and the subject of this clause is the implied subject of μαρτυρηση (cf. principle 3). Hence, the dependent clause is ινα μαρτυρηση.
Furthermore, we know that dependent clauses function just like other words; they can be adverbial, adjectival, or substantives. To find out the function of this clause, use the questions you learned. This clause is modifying ηλθεν and is answering the why? question. Hence, in your English translation, you will translate ινα as “in order that”.
Keeping principle 27 in mind, we know to expect a subjunctive verb. Because it is subjunctive, we will use the helping verb “might” in our translation. Subjunctives are generally easy to find because of principle 27. The distinguishing factor of a verb in the subjunctive mood is the lengthened connecting vowel.
Note the evolution of μαρτυρήσῃ:
περὶ τοῦ φωτός,
This is a prepositional phrase.
φωτος is a noun in the genitive case. The lexical form is φως. Check the index in the very back of MBG for the code. You will see the code given this word is n3c(6c). Turning to that paradigm (p. 198), you can see the different forms.
ἵνα πάντες πιστεύσωσιν δι’ αὐτοῦ.
πιστευσα add the tense formative
πιστευσαω add the lengthened connecting vowel (because it is subjunctive mood, BBG 31.9)
πιστευσωσι add the verb ending
πιστευσωσιν movable nu
οὐκ ἦν ἐκεῖνος τὸ φῶς
There are two demonstrative pronouns in Greek, εκεινος and ουτος.
- εκεινος generally refers to a more remote object and is translated “that” or “those”.
- ουτος refers to a nearer object and is translated “this” or “these”.
Notice that the gender of εκεινος (masculine) does not agree with that of φῶς (neuter). Hence, this cannot be “He was that light.” Remember principle 7. Therefore, we conclude that εκεινος is the subject of ην and φως is the PN.
ἀλλ’ ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός.
αλλ is the conjunction αλλα, but the final alpha is cut off by elision, because the next word begins with a vowel. Recall the same thing happening to δια above (δι αυτου).
αλλα is a FANBOYS. It is a strong contrastive. Much more so than δε (GGBB p. 671).
ινα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός
This is a dependent clause (ινα is the DMW). This clause modifies ηλθεν from the beginning of verse 7. Notice that inside this dependent clause there is a prepositional phrase περι του φωτος. This phrase answers the how? question, and it modifies μαρτυρηση.